Viagra before and after photos

Viagra before and after photos

Viagra before and after photos

Viagra before and after photos

I love a great adventure. The anticipation, the rush of getting ready, the exhilaration of pushing your comfort zone and experiencing all that is foreign adds to the thrill. There’s nothing that compares to stepping into the great unknown and pushing your boundaries to the limit. That excites me. So at any given moment I’m always ready for the chaos that comes with being spontaneous. It’s my nature.

Viagra before and after photos

Last Friday, I got the call. Steve in Little Orleans, MD had heard about me four years ago when I rode through his town, in the western part of Maryland, during my cross-country trek on horseback. Steve tracked me down on Friday. Did I know of anyone with a horse trailer who would trailer a horse to West Virginia?

It seems a long rider had left his lead horse with Steve for six weeks while the horse healed. In due time, the rope burn on the horse’s hock had finally healed and the horse was ready to be reunited with its owner.

The long rider, whom Steve described as a short Atilla the Hun and whom I’ll call Jack, started his cross-country trek in Harpers Ferry with a lead horse, a pack horse, and two other men and their horses.

Viagra before and after photos

It probably took Jack five days, give or take a day or two, to journey the 100 miles to Little Orleans. A trip that would normally take an hour and 38 minutes by car takes five days for a long rider on horseback. The long rider’s horse is imperative to the success of the journey. Trying to make 4000 miles over the long-haul, means the long rider needs his horse to pace at 20 miles a day. For me, that averaged out to be three miles an hour—with breaks, fan fare, interviews and the like, I was in the saddle for eight or nine hours a day. Long hard days, but there’s nothing like seeing America at three miles an hour.

The first three weeks of any long rider’s journey are the hardest. Those weeks make or break the long rider, the horse and the journey. It’s not an adventure for the faint of heart. Jack’s companions bailed on him when they arrived in Little Orleans. After three weeks of staying with Steve while his horse was healing, Jack made the decision to push on with his pack horse, alone. Would it be possible for Steve to make arrangements for the horse to meet up with Jack when the horse healed?

Viagra before and after photos

That’s where I came in. Did I know of anyone who would trailer the horse to Jack? You betcha. Me. It was a fellow “wanna-be” long rider in need. So I texted my partner, who was in the Doctor’s office on a late Friday afternoon. Did he want to join me? The Plan—to head out with the truck and trailer with an overnight stop at the Little Orleans Lodge, au gratis, from the owner Steve. In the morning we would load Jack’s horse and head out to Davis, WV where Jack and his pack horse were staying overnight. The trip would take a total of ten hours. Five there. Five back. I had no choice. I had to “pay it forward” for everyone who had been so kind-hearted in my time of need on my journey. This I had to do for them. Plus, I love a good adventure.

My partner, being the great sport that he is, was game. He’d be ready to leave in two hours. With a spring in my step, I packed up, made a picnic dinner to eat in the car and grabbed a great bottle of red, two wine glasses and a corkscrew. After all we were going to be staying in a rustic bed and breakfast for the night.—why not take full advantage of the evening?

Viagra before and after photos

We arrived well into the evening, greeted by Steve, an affable retired post master, who had worked on the lodge since buying it for his wife and children back in the early 70s. When he retired, Steve turned it into a B&B on the C&O canal, a 184.5 mile long trail that winds around the Potomac River following the towpath of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Steve was happy to host the eclectic group of trail-goers who by chance stumbled into his lodge on foot, bicycle or even horseback. Over a glass of wine, he shared the stories of those in his register: hippies, loners and couples, all who had set out on a journey to find themselves.

After a morning breakfast of two eggs over easy, sausage, potatoes and the most mouth-watering, sweetest biscuits I ever had, we loaded up Jack’s horse and headed on down the road to Davis, WV to meet up with the long rider, Jack.

Viagra before and after photos

Steve was wrong. Jack looked more like Johnny Depp in the Pirates of the Caribbean. He acted like him too. In spite of himself, you couldn’t help but like him. Jack was a 31 year-old man with a black bandanna and tongue piercing, trying to figure life out from a horse’s point of view. He was ecstatic to have his lead horse back. I knew the feeling. Rocky, my lead horse, had injured himself when another horse kicked him in Illinois. I had to leave him behind to heal. Parting with him ripped my heart out. When we were reunited three weeks later, the joy in having him back defied description. I was lost without him. I knew the elation that Jack experienced in being reunited with his horse on their great adventure.

Before leaving, Jack asked me to write in his journal, to offer him advice or wisdom that I had garnered on my solo trek. I simply wrote, “Discover the joy, discover the journey, discover yourself.” Because that’s what it’s all about—on any adventure.

Viagra before and after photos

Tomorrow I head out on another adventure. Australia. For two weeks. Part of the journey will be a 4WD trip to the Outback where I’ll be backpacking, tenting and dining with the Aborigines. Wish me luck and hope that I discover the joy, the journey and perhaps even myself. When I return from this Aussie Adventure, I’ll certainly share with you. Till then, G’day mate.

Viagra before and after photos

When someone loses a pet and says to me in grief, “I know it’s not the same as losing a child, but it hurts so much,” my heart aches. Not because I know the pain of losing not one, but two children, but because I also know the pain of losing a dearly loved animal.

Viagra before and after photos

Nothing, and I mean, nothing compares to the pain of losing a child, but that doesn’t diminish the heartache of any loss. Human or animal. The void in life after loss is incredible. Where there was once life, a huge black hole looms when death takes over. Where there was once love, heartache. Smiles. Sadness. Happiness. Loneliness. The loss of life fills your heart with an overwhelming emptiness and pain. The moment of loss—that incredible moment of pain—in the passing of life is unavoidably deep. It rips your heart out. Loss causes heartache and there’s just no getting around that. It’s a part of life.

Viagra before and after photos

This past February I had to put down Eric’s beloved Shadow. It was so painfully hard, perhaps extra so, because it was Eric’s dog, my living link to my dead son. Shadow was the kindest, gentlest black lab I’d ever known. He had a huge heart with big soulful brown eyes. When the decision came to put him down, I left that to my surviving son, Peter. He had taken over Shadow’s care in Eric’s passing.

Shadow had developed brain cancer with severe epileptic seizures and it was Pete’s responsibility to ensure Shadow’s comfort in his final debilitating days. Pete rose to the occasion and gently helped Shadow every time he experienced a seizure. Pete was also there in the middle of the night to clean up the blood and excrement from Shadow’s thrashing. And Pete found the courage to tell me it was time to euthanize him. As Shadow’s big black head with the soulful eyes lay quietly in Peter’s lap as the vet administered the needle, my heart screamed in pain at yet another loss in our lives. Shadow. Eric’s big black lab with the soft soul. My heart ached and I cried.

Viagra before and after photos

I was so thankful he didn’t die alone; Shadow deserved more than that. Nothing should die alone. Any—no all–life deserves more than that.

Viagra before and after photos

This past spring, I was headed down York Road and had to come to a creeping crawl to avoid the growing crowd on the shoulder of the road. Some members of the crowd were crying, others didn’t know what to do, but all eyes looked toward the middle of the road. My eyes followed their gazes. In the middle of the road was a beautiful brindle pit bull, smashed and dying on York Road. No one was near him; he was dying alone. God no. I pulled over and ran to him. “Has anyone comforted the poor thing?” I screamed. “No,” came their replies in unison. “We didn’t know if he’d bite.” I was spitting mad with grief, pain and tears as I watched the poor dog hold on to dear life. Where was their compassion? I didn’t understand. As I knelt down and stroked the dog’s big beautiful head, his blood spilling over onto my knees, his tail gave a tiny wag as he tried to look at me. I held him, comforted him, and loved him in his final moments.

I was so thankful he didn’t die alone. I didn’t know him, but he deserved more than that.

Viagra before and after photos

Monday morning I headed to the farm to tend to my two horses and the other ten horses I’ve cared for over the past five years. My routine always starts out the same. I whistle for my horses and say hi to the others gathered at the gate. Where was Blaze, the leader of the herd? I headed into the stall barn to dish up the grain. Still no Blaze. That’s odd. Where was she? I called for her. No Blaze.

After putting the other 11 horses in their respective feeding stations. I shlepped through the field, over the bridge, over the stream, and into the 50 acre field to find Blaze. There, just beyond the stream, she lay—struggling to get up, bloated, and covered with flies. She had colicked sometime during the night and the others had left her for dead. My God. My God. No. No. No. The poor thing. Tears streamed down my face as I knelt beside her. She moved her head and laid it on my foot, looking at me through bleeding eyes as she let out a soft whinny.

I fumbled for my cell phone and called my girlfriend, leaving a terrifying message, “Call the vet. Call the vet now!” I screamed through my sobs. Then I crumpled beside Blaze in the field and stroked her big beautiful brown head with the white blaze. She labored to breathe. “Hang on. Hang on.” I whispered in her ear. “He’s coming. He’s coming.”

The vet arrived but couldn’t get his SUV across the stream. Could we get her up? Blaze tried, oh she tried so hard, but she didn’t have enough left in her. With a heavy heart the vet returned to his car to get the needle to euthanize her.

“Blaze, get up. Get up. You can do it. Everyone’s waiting on the other side. Don’t die her alone. Come on honey….get up.” I sobbed in her ear. With one valiant effort the gentle leader rose off her barrel belly onto her buckled knees and stood. With painful, labored steps this beautiful beast made her way to the stream where her herd was waiting. It took her fifteen minutes but she finally crossed to the other side where she was greeted with whinies and neighs from her delighted followers. She grew stronger with every painful step through the support and love of her herd, owners and caretakers, and finally made it to the paddock where she was enveloped and loved as she was laid to rest.

An imperial leader, of the gentlest nature, Blaze. I loved Blaze and was thankful she didn’t have to die alone. She deserved more than that, as do all creatures, great and small.

Rest in Peace Blaze, our gentle leader

Rest in Peace Blaze, our gentle leader

Viagra before and after photos

When something turns out way better than expected it brings such joy to life. I love pleasant surprises and this 4th of July weekend has been full of them.

Friday night kicked the weekend off with one. I was driving home from work and saw crabs for $20/doz. at what I thought was a local down and dirty pub with a bad reputation. Or at least that’s what I had been told. Twenty dollars for a dozen crabs was worth the risk of a bad reputation.

Viagra before and after photos

Arriving home, I asked my partner if he wanted to go out for the deal. The catch? He had to at least look the part of a red neck. He couldn’t walk into the down and dirty bar as a prep. Could he do it? He tried. He came bounding down the stairs in an old worn out t-shirt. Perfect. Till my eyes rolled to his bottom half. The crease in the jeans still gave him away. No matter how hard he tries he just can’t look down and dirty. I guess that’s not really a flaw though. I smiled; he tried. He then looked me up and down and said, “Well you’re not really down and dirty either. “Ah, but no,” was my reply, “I just need to look good to a red neck guy.”

When we got out of the car in the parking lot and headed for the bar door, a Harley roared by. My partner said “Man, he couldn’t keep his eyes off you.”  I laughed, “Actually he couldn’t take his eyes off the crease in your jeans.”

Viagra before and after photos

We pulled the door open, expecting the worse. To our pleasant surprise the restaurant was cute, the bar great, and the prices were fabulous. The owner came out, engaged us in conversation, and threw four extra crabs into our to-go bag. We’re definitely going to hit that down and dirty pub up for our weekly cheap date night. Pushing one’s comfort zone is grand.

Viagra before and after photos

Saturday, the 4th of July, started out with a 5:45 am wake up call for me to get ready for my first parade in the Cavalry. My partner, coming along for pure support, rolled out of bed at the ungodly weekend hour to help me get Rocky, my horse, ready for the 4th of July parade in Takoma Park in Washington, DC.

Our first pleasant surprise came as we arrived in Takoma Park. Expecting an urban area with lots of noise, cars and pollution, we were greeted with a charming bedroom community with tree-lined sidewalks stretching in front of historic homes. Lawns were filled with a thousand or more  children, parents and grandparents decked out in red, white and blue, waving flags of all sizes. The weather was perfect and the air was filled with a patriotic hum, no matter which side of the political fence the flag was flying on.

In fact one long-haired silver woman in a purple tye-dyed flowing skirt came up to me in my military dress blues as I was mounting up on Rocky. She leaned in and thanked me for protecting her right to her far different views. She smiled as she pointed to the flower in her hair. I smiled back, knowing what she meant, and thanked her. Two different sides of the fence coming together as Americans to enjoy a parade in a small home-town.

Viagra before and after photos

As we assembled for the parade, the Sergeant who was supposed to be carrying the flag for the hour-long parade was suffering from the flu. He grew weezy and weak and, unfortunately, had to withdraw. My commander turned to me and Rocky and said, “Step up, it’s your honor.” My second pleasant surprise. As we started off with the large flag flapping over Rocky’s ears, the crowd stood and erupted into cheers and applause. My heart surged, filling with pride and patriotism. I whispered to my commander, “I’m going to cry sir. I’m going to lose it.” “Hold on PFC Losey. Hang in there.” And I did, for the hour long ceremony as we paraded through the streets to thousands of red-blooded Americans celebrating our independence. Truth be told, tears streamed down my face, as we celebrated as one.

Viagra before and after photos

After arriving home, we had no plans. So we took an afternoon of leisure hanging out in the pool, swimming side-by-side and then tying two floats together as we held hands and napped. Totally unlike us, and it felt so good, another pleasant surprise. I told my partner it would be a perfect day if I could once again hear the squeal of children playing in a pool. The phone rang.

My sister-in-law from my first marriage, whom I’ve been friends with for 27 years, was at Wegman’s. “Hey,” I said, “Why don’t you grab a 5 lb. bag of Sahlen hot dogs and bring the kids on over for a picnic and swim?” “I already have the hot dogs in the cart, along with cole slaw, strawberries and stuff to make shortcake. Game?” she asked.”You bet I am.” I replied. I ran upstairs and uncovered the goggles, the flippers, the frisbee and ball that Eric and Sam used to play on the beach with Cara and Peter far too many years ago.

Viagra before and after photos

When my in-laws arrived, we baked the shortcake and headed out to the deck to grill the dogs, drink, and listen to the squeal of children once again playing in the pool. I sighed perfectly contented with my weekend full of patriotism and pleasant surprises. God I love the small joys of life.

Takoma Park Parade, July 4th 2009

Takoma Park Parade, July 4th 2009

Viagra before and after photos

Driving the 350 miles up to my hometown of Buffalo for my nephew’s high school graduation, revealed to me an “aha” moment: people handle driving the way they handle life. Lead, follow or get out of the way! Please.

Viagra before and after photos

As I was driving on an open stretch of route 15 in Pennsylvania, a silver Kia sedan sped up as it approached my rearview mirror. As it passed me, I noticed the twenty-something girl behind the wheel, who immediately slowed down once she pulled back into my lane in front of me. As I then pulled out to pass her, she immediately sped up, only to slow down again when I resumed my position behind her. She slowed down. I went to pass. She sped up. I’d pull back in. She’d slow down. This went on for a number of miles, when the “aha” moment hit me. She wanted to lead, but didn’t have the courage to be the leader.

Viagra before and after photos

Along the way, the highway was strewn with state troopers pulling people over as they sped by. The twenty-something girl flying by me wanted to be in the lead but didn’t have the courage to be the lead driver. She wouldn’t commit. She wasn’t willing to take the risk of being pulled over for speeding. But she wanted to BE the leader, forcing the other drivers to either drive her speed or pass her. It was an unsafe practice for those following. Speed up. Slow down. Speed up. Slow down. It was an accident waiting to happen. She was not lead driver material. She needed to be following at a safe speed. I’m confident her approach to driving was the same as her approach to life. A young girl be-bopping along, accelerating, de-accelerating, pulling in and passing, trying to find the rhythm of her life.

When it comes to driving and life, I’m a leader but have no problem following—IF I’m behind a confident leader who makes good decisions. If not, get out of the way, ’cause I’ll take over and pass. I don’t have a lot of patience for hesitant leaders or drivers. Commit. Make a decision or move over and let someone else lead.

Viagra before and after photos

En route to Buffalo, I encountered fierce thunderstorms with pelting rain and winds. Hail storm like conditions, just shy of hailstones coming down. As a pretty fearless driver, severe winter storms don’t stop me, let alone a little rain. Yet people were driving 25 mph hour on an interstate with their flashers on. People, please. It’s a little rain. Well a lot of rain. Eventually most of the drivers pulled over. Ah, relief. An open road where I could go. I led the drivers, confidently, to salvation, er, sunshine. It just took someone willing to commit and lead. I have no problem stepping up if need be. That’s who I am as I driver and who I am in life.

Viagra before and after photos

My partner has an interesting approach to driving and to life. He meanders in both. If there’s a straight line to get from point A to E, he’ll drive from A to D to K to N back to C over to J and eventually he’ll make it to E, his end destination. This is his approach to most things in life. In the meantime, he’s made a lot of stops, said hi to many people and eventually accomplished what he sets out to do. If I’m on a mission and need to get from A to E in record time, and I’m with him, I have to restrain myself from pushing down on his knee to accelerate to 65 mph. It drives me bonkers. But if I’m not on a mission, and willing to meander, it makes for a very pleasant journey. That’s why I think we make good partners—one forces the other to stay on task, the other forces the other to stop and smell the roses.

Viagra before and after photos

Although I stay on task, I am an adventurer. I love the journey, the drive, the discovery, the ability to make choices. My brother has a GPS named Lucille. I hate her. No, I will not turn because you told me to. I’ll turn because I choose to. No wait, I WANTED to go to the Ben and Jerry’s. It’s an unscheduled stop, don’t recalculate. Shut up. Stop it. Let me drive. Let me choose. Let me discover their new Mission to Marzipan flavor. Stop it. Stop it. Stop it. I don’t want to stay on task I want to stop and smell the roses. But she won’t let me, without giving me a huge headache. Big mouth Lucile shows no restraint. Recently, someone stole her. God Bless them.

Viagra before and after photos

Did you know a study recently stated that people with lots of bumper stickers on their cars are aggressive drivers? I find that hilarious, because the cars that I usually see plastered with bumper stickers are Subarus touting world peace.

You’ll be happy to know that I don’t place bumper stickers on my vehicles. But if I were to sport a bumper sticker on my 4×4 F-150 it would simply be, “Visualize whirled peas.”

visualize-whirled-peas-bumper-sticker-5781

Viagra before and after photos

“When the going gets tough, the tough eat donuts”–Ziggy

I love Ziggy. Do you remember him—the fat little bald guy in the 70’s comic strip by Tom Wilson? Ziggy had a “woe is me” perspective on life but offered simple words of wisdom.

The cartoon quote from above was lovingly cut out of the paper by my dad and taped to my mirror when I was 18. I’m sure it’s now tucked away in an attic box piled on top of other boxes from far too many moves. Every time I think of Ziggy, I think of my dad who passed away at an early age of 59, fifteen years ago.

Viagra before and after photos

My dad didn’t cut that cartoon out to suggest I was getting fat. He simply cut it out because the humor struck a chord with him. When I was 18 I worked in the deli of a local grocery store. Oftentimes, at the end of the shift, I had to box up the fresh donuts from the bakery to be put out for the “day old” dollar sale the next day. So each night I’d box them up–and then buy ‘em. My particular favorites were the peanut donuts. Oh my, they were good. But, alas, they are not made anymore because of all the peanut allergen sufferers out there. Sigh. I loved a good peanut donut. The memory of biting into a fresh donut with falling nuts and crumbs waiting to be scooped up, filling my nose with the warm, nutty sensation, still makes my mouth water.

Viagra before and after photos

The humor that my dad found in the comic strip was that I was a love-sick teen who had just broken up with my first forever boyfriend, who brought home a box of donuts at the end of the night to eat away the pain. When the going got tough, I ate donuts. My dad was trying to get me to move through the “woe is me” attitude from the teen-age breakup with humor. I loved that about my dad—he moved through life with humor and I couldn’t help but be sucked into it.

Viagra before and after photos

That particular Ziggy cartoon was based on the quote from Joseph P. Kennedy, father of our 35th president John F. Kennedy, “When the going gets tough, the tough get going.” I’m sure the fiercely ambitious businessman and political figure, who thrived on competition and winning, gave that fatherly advice to his 9 children with a stern striking of his fist with emphasis on every word.

Not my dad. He cut out cartoons from the paper and taped them to my mirror. He peeled off Chiquita banana labels and pasted them somewhere in my school lunch box for me to discover with love. He’d sneak away early from work and show up unexpectedly for the last 15 minutes of my soccer game. He didn’t rule with an iron fist, rather with respect, love and humor.

Viagra before and after photos

The humor that he used to get me through my first forever boyfriend break-up still makes me smile to this day. He was letting me know that life goes on, it’s what you make of it, it’s how you choose to move through it that makes all the difference.

Viagra before and after photos

I had to stop eating donuts, not because they landed on my hips, but because I got sick of them. To this day I have a hard time eating donuts because I ate too much of a good thing way back when. As Marie Lloyd so simply states, ” A little of what you fancy does you good.” The lesson from Ziggy and my dad: taking it to the extreme is not necessarily a good thing. Although I have to admit when I see a “Hot Donuts Now” sign flashing at a Krispy Kreme, my car automatically pulls into the drive-thru. I’m just taking them home to the kids. Honest.

“A LITTLE of what you fancy does you good.” For sure.

Ziggy

Ziggy

Viagra before and after photos

Sock. Shoe. Sock. Shoe. No. Sock. Sock. Shoe. Shoe. I do sock, sock, shoe, shoe. How do you approach your morning routine?In the end does it really matter? In Ted Menton’s After Goodbye, he tells the story of two children in the throes of cancer arguing in the cancer ward about which is better. Sock. Shoe. Sock. Shoe. or Sock. Sock. Shoe. Shoe.

Viagra before and after photos

In spite of the cancer scenario, I find it amusing that two children facing the fight of their lives still find their individual routine’s worth fighting about. Sock. Shoe. vs. Sock. Sock. I have never been a routine person. Not me. In fact, if you ever placed me into a box, I’d scrape and claw my way out of it.

All my life, I’ve been known for my spontaneous nature. Until my children died. Then, I took great comfort in my routine. It was what got me up in the morning. Linda, first put on your sock, then your shoe. Nope. Put on your sock. Now put on your other sock. Okay, put on your shoe. Now your other shoe. Now put one foot in front of the other. Now take a step. Okay. Move the other foot. Move forward. Step by step. Move through the pain. You can do it. Sock. Sock. Shoe. Shoe. Move. Move. And that’s how I’ve moved through the passing pain of losing two children.

Viagra before and after photos

Most of you know Monday marked the five year anniversary of Sam’s passing. My 10 year old son. I have been in a routine for the past five years in learning how to live again through the loss. Sock. Sock. Shoe. Shoe. Move. Move. Don’t you take that routine away from me. Like the children on the cancer ward, I took great comfort in owning my routine. It was the only thing I had control over. God forbid I put on Sock. Shoe. Sock. Shoe. It didn’t feel right. Just like my life without my children. Come to think of it, before the passing of my children I think I did Sock. Shoe. Sock. Shoe. But I couldn’t go back to the same routine. It wasn’t right. I needed a new routine. It was new, but a routine, just the same. Just like living and breathing without half my family. I had to learn to do it all over again. The basics of living.

Viagra before and after photos

Know how I celebrated Sam’s anniversary? The “non-celebration,” as it were, ended up in my mowing the lawn. Now my partner prides himself on the perfectly parallel lines in the lawn. I never got that. I don’t. To me a lawn is a lawn. And this just isn’t a lawn; it’s a field, a three acre field next to a stream. It deserves to be a field. But nope. He wants it to be a lawn. Not me. I want it to be a field with dancing grass blowing in the breeze, next to the stream. I want it mowed three times a season. He wants it mowed once a week. Now I love to mow, so I took on the chore. On Sunday, I started running the perfectly parallel lines of the routine. Sock. Sock. Shoe. Shoe. Up. Down. Up. Down. Forty-five inches over from whence I started. Now another 45 inch wide mowing deck over. Then a dragon fly landed on the dancing grass next to the stream in the field I was cutting into a routine.

Viagra before and after photos

Sam followed me across the country on my horse trip. Thousands of dragon flies followed me. They had my back. As Sam did. I wear a dragon fly bracelet as a remembrance of Sam. So I couldn’t do it. I couldn’t cut the field in parallel lines. I couldn’t cut the field so the dragon fly had no where to land. I couldn’t cut the field by way of routine. So in honor of Sam, I cut whoopsi-doodles. No rhyme or reason. Just by happen-chance, I have a field full of perfectly un-parallel lines. Perfect whoopsi-doodles where dragon flies can land on the missed grass of the 45 inch mowing deck. In the outskirts of the circles where 45 inches didn’t meet the other 45 inches. Where shoes come before socks. Where dragon flies land before parallel lines are cut. Where routines are lost and spirits soar. Where perhaps even socks are worn without shoes. For in the end, it just doesn’t matter.

Viagra before and after photos

“Wow, Linda, you look fabulous and fit!” was the statement I heard Tuesday night at my Toastmaster’s meeting. Little did that person know I have, over the past 4 months, unintentionally dropped 1/5 of my weight.  Now, I’ve never had a problem with weight. I had four children and managed to stay relatively thin chasing after them through the years. But I found it truly ironic that I’m the thinnest I’ve ever been—even before my high school years—and was being rewarded with a “Wow, you look fit and fabulous.”  I didn’t feel it.

Viagra before and after photos

Yesterday I nearly collapsed at work, drove to a 24/7 healthcare center, to be told I’m severely anemic. This coupled with the five other symptoms that have crept up on me over the past four months and the doctor scared me with the big C.

My dad died of cancer and it wasn’t something I was prepared to hear. Now lots more tests need to be done, so don’t get all melodramatic on me. I have lots of years left to live, I know that, and feel that, with every fiber of my being. The point to all of this is that you just don’t know what the day may bring. Are you living the life you were born to lead?

Viagra before and after photos

“Always be a first-rate version of yourself, instead of a second-rate version of somebody else.”
–Judy Garland

This from a woman who played somebody else for 45 of her 47 years. This from a woman who attempted suicide numerous times throughout her tragic life. This from a woman who struggled with insecurities and addictions. This from a woman who was told by her producers that she was unattractive and overweight. This from a woman who died at 47, the same age I’m about to turn in three weeks. Was Judy Garland ever a first-rate version of herself?

Judy Garland will always be remembered as Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz, with her ruby red slippers, clicked three times, as she closed her eyes and chanted,  “There’s no place like home. There’s no place like home. There’s no place like home.” Ironically, Judy Garland never felt at home anywhere. I can only imagine why she never revealed her true self, always hiding it away—for fear that her adoring fans would cast aside the real Judy. They always wanted Dorothy. The cute little, pig-tailed girl from Kansas.

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I also imagine that Judy Garland did live the life she was born to lead. She was a wonderful actress and a beautiful singer with her deep contralto voice. No one does honor to Somewhere Over the Rainbow the way Judy performed it half a century ago. But she never believed she deserved to be Judy Garland and all that she achieved. She was just Frances Ethel Gumm from Grand Rapids, MN. When she was pushed into acting, Frances’ confidence was sucked out of her and for years she was only able to portray a second-rate version of somebody else.

When the big C is thrown at you, your life hits replay over and over again in your mind. “Have you lived the life you wanted? Have you achieved what you set out to achieve? What more do you have left to do?”  It begs the question, “What is your legacy?”

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So what is your legacy? If you were to die tomorrow, did you live the life you were born to lead? Will you leave behind something to remember? Did you live a first-rate version of yourself?

I hope I have.

I know my youngest son Sammy did. On Monday, he’ll be gone 5 years. On June 22. But I still remember his great grin. His aqua blue eyes. His mischevious sense of humor. And his terrific hugs. In his short 10 years, Sammy was a first-rate version of himself. There will never be another.  In the end, all you have are memories, and the ones spent with family and friends are the ones you treasure most.

So as I remember Sammy and Frances Ethel Gumm, who co-incidentally also died on June 22, as I head into the doctors for a follow-up visit to the big C scare, I hope to see a rainbow smiling down on me.

Somewhere Over the Rainbow (click, for a beautiful version by 6 year-old Connie Talbot on YouTube)

Somewhere over the rainbow
Way up high,
There’s a land that I heard of
Once in a lullaby.

Somewhere over the rainbow
Skies are blue,
And the dreams that you dare to dream
Really do come true.

Someday I’ll wish upon a star
And wake up where the clouds are far
Behind me.
Where troubles melt like lemon drops
Away above the chimney tops
That’s where you’ll find me.

Somewhere over the rainbow
Bluebirds fly.
Birds fly over the rainbow.
Why then, oh why can’t I?

If happy little bluebirds fly
Beyond the rainbow
Why, oh why can’t I? 1

I hope we all live the life we were born to lead—the way Sammy did, so beautifully and innocently with a verve for life and love. Love and miss you tons, my little Sammer Dam.

Sam Losey, 3/29/94 - 6/22/2004

Sam Losey, 3/29/94 - 6/22/2004

1 Somewhere Over the Rainbow, music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by E.Y. Harburg

Viagra before and after photos

Many moons ago, when my mother was the age I am now, and I was but a girl of 16, my father came home one memorable day and announced to us that we were moving. To a farm. Although I was a tomboy with three older brothers, I was a city girl through and through. It’s all I had known.

As a family, we would be moving to a 10 acre farm, next to 3000 acres of state land, to a public school with a graduating class of 32.  Yep, I was downsizing as president of my class of 400, to 32 classmates, and upsizing from an 1/8 of an acre lot in the city, to thousands of acres in my backyard.

In order to get me to go without kicking and screaming, my father bribed me with a horse. He was a smart man.

Most of you know that horses are a huge part of my life and I have no problem getting down and dirty with ‘em. And others know me as a gussied up artist, author, and speaker. As Kippling writes, “Never the twain shall meet.” My wardrobe is determined by the activity of the day, yet whatever I’m wearing on the outside, doesn’t change the me I am on the inside. The old idiom, “Don’t judge a book by its cover,” is, well, cliché-like, but, it’s still relevant today.

Viagra before and after photos

A month after we moved to the farm, on a blazingly hot summer day, my father ordered manure from our neighbor’s farm to fertilize the small garden he was tilling. I remember the moment the manure arrived. The fresh droppings reeked and steamed. But that’s not what I remember the most. Our neighbor’s ten year old daughter was sitting plop on top of the manure pile, with a wide grin, happy as a pig in….well you know.

My mother, father and I grabbed our shovels to start pushing the manure off the wagon into the garden. The little girl with the huge smile sitting in the stewing cow chips, looked at my mother incredulously. “What are you afraid to get them rings dirty?” she asked as she pushed the shit off with her bare feet. My mother stared back in horror.

Now my mother is not an outdoor person per se, but she did a great job of humoring her five children and outdoor-loving husband through countless camping trips, homeless animals, moves to the country, etc. But I don’t think I could ever picture her shoveling dung with her feet. On the other-hand I don’t think that grinning girl on top of that manure mountain would ever sit still in a theater either. But I don’t know, I lost track of her. Who am I to judge that she couldn’t or wouldn’t?

Viagra before and after photos

On my solo cross-country journey by horseback, I did a lot of wilderness camping and would go days without eating or showering. Yep, I reeked, I’m sure, like the compost on that hot summer day, but there was something about the solace of the wilderness that helped to heal me on that long journey.

One stop in particular reminded me of that long-ago judgment day with my neighbor’s little girl. Camping for two days in a park outside of a penitentiary in rural Indiana, I was sitting under a tree journaling when a truck hauling a two-horse trailer arrived. I paid them no mind and continued writing. After tacking and mounting up, the owners made their way to me. They were retirees out for a late-summer ride and had never before encountered in their horse park a wild-haired, dirty, lone woman parked under a tree writing with two horses grazing beside her. Was she an escapee from the penitentiary—or worse yet, waiting to help a convict escape on her other horse? Still I paid them no attention as they inched in closer with their mounts—until the wife leaned over and whispered, “Is that a boy or a girl?” I looked up with a smile and said, “I’m a girl with a Master’s and perfectly good hearing.” But I sure didn’t look it.

Viagra before and after photos

Last night, as I was mounting up for a high profile event with my horse, I had to pee. With no facilities around, I sheepishly entered my horse trailer, closed the door, and had to make do sitting plop on top of a manure bucket with freshly steaming dung, just like that little girl from my childhood. Who knew that would be me someday?

This morning after getting all-gussied up for work, I had to stop by my partner’s office to drop something off. He introduced me to the office cleaning lady, a nice enough woman, who totally misread me. She leaned over and said to him, “She’s very pretty, but it looks like she’s afraid to get those nails dirty.” He laughed, “Of anybody I know Linda has no problem getting down and dirty, but she cleans up real ‘purdy!’”

Viagra before and after photos

Although the idiom, “Don’t judge a book by its cover” came about in the journal, American Speech in 1944, the idea has been around for centuries. Heed these wise words written by François Rabelais in La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel, “But it’s wrong to be so superficial when you’re weighing men’s work in the balance. Wouldn’t you yourself say that the monk’s robes hardly determine who the monk is? Or that there are some wearing monks’ robes who, on the inside, couldn’t be less monkish? Or that there are people wearing Spanish capes who, when it comes to courage, couldn’t have less of the fearless Spanish in them? And that’s why you have to actually open a book and carefully weigh what’s written there.”1

You have to actually open a book and carefully weigh what’s written there… Relevant words an incredible five centuries later. God, I love words! Down and dirty, but real “purdy!”

1 Wikipedia

Viagra price cvs

An aggressive erectile dysfunction treatment surveillance and testing effort at Duke University was highly effective in minimizing viagra price cvs the spread of the disease among students on campus, according to a case study appearing in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.The successful Duke campaign was launched before the start of the semester. Ahead of arriving on campus, all enrolled students were required to self-quarantine for 14 days, sign a code of conduct pledge to obey mask-wearing and social distancing guidelines and have a erectile dysfunction treatment test.Once classes started, the university conducted regular surveillance testing using pooled samples to conserve resources, daily symptom self-monitoring, contact tracing with quarantine, and regular testing for those who were symptomatic or had been exposed to someone with erectile dysfunction treatment.The result. The average per-capita prevalence among students was lower than in the surrounding community, and large outbreaks seen on other campuses were avoided.

Overall, combined testing approaches identified 84 cases among students, with 51% occurring among asymptomatic people."Our experience at Duke shows that combined risk reduction strategies and surveillance testing can significantly lower transmissions on college campuses and beyond," said lead author Thomas Denny, viagra price cvs professor of medicine at Duke University School of Medicine and chief operating office at the Duke Human treatment Institute.Denny said the Duke experience relied on a combination of strategies. In addition to the testing and quarantining before students arrived on campus, the measures included. Creating a smartphone app for daily symptom self-monitoring and reporting.

Having students living on campus conduct twice-weekly tests themselves, using kits with viagra price cvs prelabeled tubs, swabs and specimen bags. Off-campus students tested at least once a week. Strategically locating sites across campus to collect testing samples from students.

Batching samples in a process called viagra price cvs pooled testing, with five samples grouped and analyzed for the presence of the viagra. Batches that registered positives were then broken into individual samples and tested separately to identify the source of the positive. The Duke Human treatment Institute processed 80,000 samples from August-October."By late summer there were still things we didn't fully understand about erectile dysfunction transmission, so there was some uncertainty going into the fall semester," said Steve Haase, associate professor in Duke's departments of Biology and Medicine.

"Over the course of the semester we've learned many things, including that it is possible to limit the spread of the viagra and create a safer environment for our students to have that invaluable on-campus learning experience.""Thanks to the collaboration of literally hundreds of dedicated individuals, along with the high level of engagement by viagra price cvs our students, we have had a very positive fall," said co-author Kyle Cavanaugh, vice president of Administration at Duke University. "Our dynamic surveillance testing strategy has served as a key component of our experience that has also included very high compliance with masking, social distancing and other key public health behaviors."In addition to Denny, Haase and Cavanaugh, study authors include Laura Andrews, Mattia Bonsignori, Michael B. Datto, Anastasia Deckard, C.

Todd Demarco, Nicole DeNaeyer, Carol A. Epling, Thaddeus viagra price cvs Gurley, Chloe Hallberg, John Harer, PhD, Charles L. Kneifel, Mark J.

Lee, Raul Louzao, M. Anthony Moody viagra price cvs. Zack Moore, Christopher R.

Polage, Jamie Puglin, P. Hunter Spotts, viagra price cvs John A. Vaughn and Cameron R.

Wolfe. Story Source viagra price cvs. Materials provided by Duke University Medical Center.

Note. Content may be edited for style and length..

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Clear evidence for a weekend effect was first demonstrated by Bell and Redelmeier1 who examined 3.8 million emergency admissions between 1988 and viagra before and after photos 1997 in an acute care hospital in Ontario. They had noted that staffing levels were lower in acute care hospitals at weekends and hypothesised that this might lead to poorer care and viagra before and after photos higher mortality. To test this hypothesis, they identified three conditions (ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute epiglottitis and pulmonary embolism) for which lower staffing on admission was expected to have consequences in outcomes, as well as three control conditions for which this would not be the case.

In addition, they conducted an analysis without a prespecified hypothesis, examining the viagra before and after photos 100 conditions responsible for most deaths. After adjustment for illness severity, they found higher mortality for conditions expected to be affected by lower staffing and no increase for control conditions. From the 100 medical conditions examined, 23 had significantly increased mortality viagra before and after photos risk for weekend admissions.

These two sets of findings provided strong evidence for a weekend effect, suggesting that for some conditions lower staffing on admission affected standards of care and thereby patient outcomes.Since then, dozens of studies of the weekend effect have been conducted, mostly in the UK and the USA.2 In Britain, the issue became much more high profile after an intervention in 2015 by the Secretary of State who suggested that 11 000 patients were unnecessarily dying at the weekend.3 4 This claim was challenged at the time,5 and many pointed out that the National Health Service (NHS) was already a 7-day service.6 7 However, concern about the weekend led eventually to the introduction of ‘7 day services’ in the NHS in England. A new set of 10 clinical standards was introduced to reduce differences between weekend and weekday services, including increased involvement of consultants in the first 24 hours of admission.8 9 A cross-sectional analysis covering the period before introduction showed no association between specialist intensity and weekend admission mortality.10 Nevertheless, the programme did lead to many NHS hospital trusts reorganising services to reduce differences in care delivery across the 7-day viagra before and after photos week. The reorganisation of services did not affect clinical outcomes11 nor was adoption of the clinical standards associated with any significant change in the magnitude of the weekend effect.12Possible underlying mechanisms.

The weekend as proxy variableRecent systematic reviews have concluded that the weekend effect does exist, but the explanation for the finding is unclear.2 4 13–17 Patients admitted to hospital at the weekend are more likely to die than those during weekdays with ORs of 1.16 (all studies)2 and 1.07 (UK studies),4 with reviews for some specific disease categories reporting higher ORs.2 13 The quality of studies is highly variable, with findings being influenced by viagra before and after photos methodological, clinical and service configuration factors2 with ongoing debate about likely mechanisms. Why has it been so difficult to elucidate possible mechanisms?. To go more deeply into this, we need to consider what role the weekend is playing in the design of all these studies.Bell and Redelmeier1 used viagra before and after photos two distinct designs in their original investigation, which might best be defined as an investigation of staffing levels and mortality.

In their first analysis, the weekend is used as a proxy measure for differences in staffing. They targeted specific conditions such as ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm for which staffing on admission was deemed likely viagra before and after photos to have an important impact on patient outcomes. Their second analysis took the opposite approach, by examining overall outcomes at the weekend and then speculating about which factors might explain any observed differences.

Most subsequent studies have used viagra before and after photos the second approach, which has made it difficult to make progress on identifying the relevant factors driving any effect. If we do not define the questions and hypothesised relationships precisely, then we will not be able to identify how care delivered to patients is affected and which factors are responsible for poorer outcomes. Critically, if viagra before and after photos we cannot identify the factors, then we cannot intelligently propose interventions to improve patient care.We therefore need to examine how the weekend as a proxy variable for staffing levels fits into the conceptual model.

Is the proxy only associated with the determinant, often assumed to be staffing levels, or also with other possible confounders or factors that affect the outcome in question?. We recognise there are multiple possible sets viagra before and after photos of relationships, but examining three of them is sufficient to make the general argument. Figure 1 displays three possible sets of relationships, which correspond with three broad hypotheses about potential mechanisms and hence the interpretation of the weekend effect.Proxy measures in the context of studying a determinant - outcome relationship, applied to the weekend as a proxy variable for staffing." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Proxy measures in the context of studying a determinant - outcome relationship, applied to the weekend as a proxy variable for staffing.Levels of staffing on admission is the dominant influence on quality of care and mortality (panel A)This shows the ‘ideal’ and simplest situation when the proxy weekend/weekday variable is primarily associated with staffing in the first hours or days.

The implied mechanism is that viagra before and after photos lower numbers of staff, particularly senior staff, lead to poorer care and increased mortality. In that situation, weekend–weekday mortality differences, after adjustment for patient mix, can be presumed to be due to staffing differences. Bell and Redelmeier specifically tested this scenario by selecting those conditions for which the first viagra before and after photos few days of admission are critical, that are treatable and where death may be rapid.

For these conditions, insufficient staffing levels at admission (determinant) might cause delay in care processes (intermediate variable) and higher mortality (outcome).Patients at weekends are sicker and more likely to die (panel B)As many studies have shown, the weekend is associated with confounding variables. Patients admitted at the weekend are known to be sicker18 19 and viagra before and after photos are less likely to be admitted from emergency departments despite attendance rates being similar.16 20 Studies attempt to control for severity of condition and other confounders, but there is general agreement that it is simply not possible to control for all potential factors (and confounding by indication). There is always the possibility that, even after adjustment for severity of illness and other patient viagra before and after photos variables, that differences in outcome are due to other patient factors that, for whatever reason, could not be included in the calculations.

So for many conditions, this is an important alternative pathway to consider.Multiple factors affect care at the weekend, which in turn increases mortality (panel C)This model underlies the second approach by Bell and Redelmeier and many subsequent studies. The basic viagra before and after photos hypothesis is that patient outcomes differ between weekend and weekday, but this may be due to multiple relationships and multiple interrelated variables. For instance, the average seniority or specialty level may differ between the groups of nurses and medical staff working during weekdays and weekends, and such differences in skill-mix may affect patient outcomes.21–23 Access to diagnostic tests or other ancillary services might also differ between weekends and weekdays, or there may be factors further along the patient pathway (in subsequent days after admission) such as how quickly any deterioration on the ward is detected.

In this scenario, uncertainty about the mechanisms of the weekend effect makes it very difficult to identify targeted interventions to improve outcomes for patients admitted at the weekend.The assumed intermediate variable of worse quality of careHypotheses 1 and 3 have the same intermediate variable, that quality of care is poorer at the weekend—although for different reasons—and viagra before and after photos that this is the reason for higher mortality. Investigating this particular proposal requires, as many have noted, ‘painstaking detective work’,24 but few studies have directly examined the quality of care provided during weekdays and at weekends. In this viagra before and after photos issue of BMJ Quality &.

Safety, Bion and colleagues therefore add crucial evidence with their impressive and comprehensive study.25 They reviewed the quality of care delivered by examining case records from 4000 non-operative medical emergency admissions in 20 acute hospital trusts before and after introduction of the ‘7-day services’ in England. Records were randomly sampled from each trust, equally divided between the viagra before and after photos two time periods and weekend versus weekday admissions. They found that rates of errors and adverse events were not significantly different between weekdays and weekends and that this was the case both before and after introduction of the ‘7-day services’.

They also made a direct assessment of intensity of senior medical staffing by comparing hours of consultant time per viagra before and after photos 10 emergency admissions between Sundays and Wednesdays. This specialist intensity ratio was much lower at weekends (0.51 overall) and improved slightly (from 0.47 to 0.58) across periods. Their study viagra before and after photos therefore does not offer support for quality of care being worse at the weekend or that senior staff involvement at an early point in the patient’s admission is significantly associated with overall quality of care.

We should note, however, that operative patients were excluded, so it remains possible that care is poorer for some other groups of patients.The implicit assumption in many previous studies, and most political discourse, is that the weekend is simply a reflection and proxy for lower levels of skilled staff, particularly medical staff. Proxy variables are viagra before and after photos of course used all the time in research and can be very helpful if they are ‘close’ to the variable of interest. For instance, we might use the prescription record of a medication as a proxy for the actual medication administered to the patient.

We are then confident of viagra before and after photos what the proxy means and how it relates to the actual variable of interest. Even though some patients may decide not to collect their medication or be non-adherent in taking it, interpreting the proxy is relatively straightforward.In contrast, the weekend/weekday comparison is a distant and complex proxy. Care could potentially be different for a whole variety of reasons, which are only viagra before and after photos partly dependent on levels of skilled medical staff.

Diagnostic tests and investigations may not be readily available. Coordination between different specialties may be problematic viagra before and after photos within the hospital or between primary and secondary care and so on. Each of these may cause delay in a care process that may (in combination) affect patient outcomes.

In addition, conditions vary in the extent to which delays viagra before and after photos in the first few days are critical in preventing death. Some primarily require skilled staff on admission, while others are viagra before and after photos more vulnerable to later deterioration on wards and need care from experienced nurses in the days following admission.Should we continue studying the weekend effect?. We do not doubt that studies of the weekend effect have been worthwhile.

Clearly, the higher mortality at weekends originally identified viagra before and after photos 20 years ago merited investigation. The question is whether it is worthwhile to continue to conduct similar studies in the future given the limited funding and research time available. What avenues of inquiry are viagra before and after photos most likely to benefit patients?.

The ultimate aim of all concerned is to improve care given to patients. The weekend viagra before and after photos effect is only important as a potential marker of other problems. Local reviews of mortality or other indices of quality should always be alert to variations in the quality of care over the week, and consider whether care is poorer at weekends or indeed at any particular time of the day, week or year.

However, we consider that there is no reason to carry out further viagra before and after photos studies that simply demonstrate a weekend effect. We need instead to turn our attention to the factors directly influencing quality of care for which the weekend has been a proxy.Bion and colleagues provide a valuable illustration of research that examines the presumed causal relationships, looking at the actual care processes and so give a clearer indication of what kind of intervention might most benefit patients. Their study found that care had improved over time but that about viagra before and after photos 15% of patients received partial care and a small percentage received very poor care.25 These problems occurred throughout the week, affecting the larger volume of patients treated on weekdays.

Following the example of the study by Bion et al, future studies could directly assess standards of care and the factors that most powerfully influence quality. A notable example is viagra before and after photos the study by Jayawardana and colleagues,26 showing that the increased mortality for out-of-hours admissions with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction was explained by differences in door-to-needle time, identifying the specific care process on which interventions should be targeted. To improve clinical practice, we need evidence that will help us design targeted interventions to influence the quality of care delivered and thereby patient outcomes.The ‘7-day services’ initiative was introduced in England without a clear understanding of the causes of the weekend effect.

The intervention, while well intentioned, was therefore poorly targeted viagra before and after photos. Rather than a one-size-fits all initiative to increase consultant intensity, we should consider the much harder question on how to spend the same money to maximum effect. Consultant time is scarce and so should be tailored to the time, place and particular conditions where it viagra before and after photos is most beneficial over the week as a whole.

For some patients though, more rapid access to diagnostic tests or the increased use of skilled nurses during recovery may be much more critical to improving outcomes. Studies of the weekend effect drew attention to potentially dangerous levels of staffing viagra before and after photos that undoubtedly posed risks to patients. At this point, however, we need more precise studies that directly examine standards of care and the factors that influence the care delivered.

We can then define and target interventions effectively and make viagra before and after photos best use of scarce resources.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.The Harvard Medical Practice Study brought the issue of patient safety into the public eye and demonstrated that patients are often harmed by the care they receive.1 It used retrospective chart review to identify adverse events. Since its publication in 1991, considerable focus has been placed on trying to improve the methods for understanding the prevalence of harm in hospitals. These efforts have led viagra before and after photos to deeper understanding of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the tools we currently have for adverse event identification.

Still, most organisations do not have robust approaches for tracking all types of harm routinely. Other efforts have sought to assess safety not just in hospitals but across national health systems, and at one point in time, and to track and trend.Developing better approaches for measuring safety routinely is critical if we are to understand how many patients are being harmed, what the primary causes are viagra before and after photos and whether care is getting safer or less safe. However, it is also work that needs to be contextualised and the limitations of our tools must be appreciated.2 3The Irish National Adverse Event Study 2 (INAES-2) is presented in this issue.4 In this study, Connolly and colleagues used retrospective chart review to find adverse events at eight Irish viagra before and after photos hospitals in 2015 and compare these to previously reported data from 2009.

Retrospective chart review was the first method used in this space5 6 and is still a mainstay for national studies assessing rates of adverse events,7–12 although approaches using claims data are also used widely and are much less expensive though much less sensitive.13 The original approach using retrospective chart review relied on information exclusively gathered from retrospective review of randomly selected medical records, but it has since been bolstered by the creation of standardised triggers,14 and more rigorous methods for chart review which make it more sensitive for finding adverse events, and more reliable. Despite this, retrospective chart review has many limitations, most notably the level viagra before and after photos of agreement between abstractors and its reliance on the completeness of documentation in medical charts.15The issue of reliance on documentation is especially important. There have been well-conceived critiques that have raised concern related to underdocumentation of errors that occur in hospitals, as well as those that have raised concern that the findings from longitudinal studies looking at trends may be confounded by improved documentation resulting in an overestimation of the true (comparative) incidence of events.

These are viagra before and after photos both legitimate concerns. The INAES-2 study, as in prior similar work looking at multi-institution adverse event rates over time,16 17 showed an increase in events over time but no change in preventable harm. We are left not knowing if this represents a change in safety or a change in documentation.These concerns have led other investigators to develop adverse event identification approaches to enable more real-time identification, leveraging a broader set of data for the interpretation of the preventability and impact of these events.18 19 Prospective event identification, or the near real-time application of triggers, can also incorporate the perspectives of staff in the clinical environment around the time of viagra before and after photos the event to provide additional insights.

Even with this more comprehensive, contemporaneous collection of data however, agreement continues to be variable between reviewers.20–22Looking to spontaneous reporting from front-line staff, rather than retrospectively or prospectively monitoring for triggers, is another method that has been proposed as a mechanism for identifying the prevalence of adverse events over time. Similar to documentation, however, concerns exist about the under-reporting of events by front-line staff in safety reporting systems.23 24 Moreover, spontaneous reporting routinely underestimates the incidence of viagra before and after photos adverse events for some types of events by a factor of 20.25The inverse is also likely true that advances in safety culture may increase reporting, without any change in the frequency of actual events. Indeed, in the INAES-2 study, the researchers found that although safety reports increased threefold, adverse event rates did not change.

This highlights the challenge of viagra before and after photos using safety reports alone as a proxy for adverse events. Instead, the insights from safety reporting may hold promise for other uses in the safety space, such as providing a signal for the degree of staff engagement in safety, enabling the identification of near misses and facilitating the identification of significant events that require root cause analysis.Because of the variability that exists in the methods mentioned, many investigators have attempted to identify more reliable ways to identify adverse events. Several studies have employed reimbursement codes (in the USA, International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes) as a mechanism to screen for adverse events.26–28 These systems, which aim to identify complications of medical care by looking for codes that are highly associated with adverse events, have largely been shown to be ineffective.29 30 This is likely to be multifactorial, with an inability to identify which conditions predated the current healthcare encounter, a lack of incentives to use coding to identify adverse events and their limited ability to accurately capture the full clinical picture all contributing to their limited efficacy.31Other approaches have leveraged information systems viagra before and after photos to screen for adverse events, which is almost certainly how this will be done in the future.32 This works better for some categories of events than for others.

Identification for some events is relatively straightforward, for example, for the development of acute kidney injury in which there is a biomarker to track (rise in creatinine), which routinely appears when the event is present. However, the identification of newly viagra before and after photos altered mental status, for example, is much more challenging. For events such as falls, which are almost always documented in electronic health record (EHR) systems, this also works well.

Commercial products viagra before and after photos that sift through data from the EHR are available to find adverse events for inpatients, while the situation regarding adverse event detection is much less advanced in the ambulatory setting, even though EHR use is widespread in developed countries. Among the main types of inpatient adverse events, hospital-acquired s, adverse drug events and falls can readily be detected in inpatients, while the situation is more complex for deep venous thromboses/pulmonary emboli, surgical injuries, specific types of pressure ulcers and missed diagnoses.32 Novel approaches that are highly effective for identifying wrong patient errors have been developed, such as ‘retract and reorder’ detection, which identifies these errors effectively.33 This has led to interventions such as showing the photograph of a patient to the ordering clinician, which reduced the likelihood of a wrong patient order by 43% in one study.34 Still, most organisations do not have a robust sense of how often their patients experience adverse events across the spectrum of care.The challenge of adverse event identification is multiplied by the importance of understanding one moment in time and, as the authors in the INAES-2 study aim to do, trying to look at trends. This will be essential as we continue to mobilise large efforts to improve safety and as these compete with other priorities viagra before and after photos.

As with all work in quality, having robust metrics is vital. In safety, however, we have in many ways been ‘flying blind’—initiating large-scale efforts to decrease the rate of adverse events without having reliable ways to measure their prevalence over time.It is important to emphasise that this lack of insight into performance is not equally distributed across all categories of adverse events.3 In fact, as proposed recently by Shojania and Marang-van de Mheen, the incidence of adverse events may be best understood as a composite measure—with all of the limitations that come with looking at a measure with many composite parts.35 When broken apart, what we come to understand is that some of our mechanisms for identifying viagra before and after photos certain types of events are likely much more reliable than others. In the USA, for example, where the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has leveraged standardised methods for collecting and reporting national performance on a set of specific healthcare-associated s, we have much better insight into performance over time related to such healthcare-associated s than we do, for instance, with diagnostic error.Lastly, the challenge of interpreting national adverse event data over time is complicated by the nuances associated with the interfaces between politics and science.

In our personal experience, we have encountered challenges reporting results of safety studies that are tied to ministries of health.36 Related to the INAES-2 study specifically, Ireland has a long history of sensationalised media coverage of data pointing to opportunities for improved care, further complicating researchers’ ability to conduct this work free of influence.37Ultimately, the work presented by Connolly viagra before and after photos and colleagues is critically important work and we suggest that all health systems should be monitoring adverse event rates over time. The mechanisms for doing this, though, should rapidly evolve. With hospitals viagra before and after photos increasingly leveraging EHRs, data being collected in more uniform ways and advances in natural language processing and artificial intelligence, a future in which we have reliable measures of adverse events that are stable over time is likely within our reach.

To get from here to there, an ongoing investment in research with evaluation including leveraging artificial intelligence and natural language processing, and a commitment to transparent data reporting and enabling collaboration between organisations and governments focused on this work is essential.38 If we can achieve this, we could reasonably expect a future in which we have access to publicly available meaningful data on how many people are being harmed, and in what context, which could in turn transform safety.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

Clear evidence for a weekend effect was first https://trustedlocalreviews.co.uk/csv-import-export/ demonstrated by Bell and Redelmeier1 who examined viagra price cvs 3.8 million emergency admissions between 1988 and 1997 in an acute care hospital in Ontario. They had noted viagra price cvs that staffing levels were lower in acute care hospitals at weekends and hypothesised that this might lead to poorer care and higher mortality. To test this hypothesis, they identified three conditions (ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute epiglottitis and pulmonary embolism) for which lower staffing on admission was expected to have consequences in outcomes, as well as three control conditions for which this would not be the case. In addition, they viagra price cvs conducted an analysis without a prespecified hypothesis, examining the 100 conditions responsible for most deaths. After adjustment for illness severity, they found higher mortality for conditions expected to be affected by lower staffing and no increase for control conditions.

From the 100 medical conditions examined, 23 had significantly increased viagra price cvs mortality risk for weekend admissions. These two sets of findings provided strong evidence for a weekend effect, suggesting that for some conditions lower staffing on admission affected standards of care and thereby patient outcomes.Since then, dozens of studies of the weekend effect have been conducted, mostly in the UK and the USA.2 In Britain, the issue became much more high profile after an intervention in 2015 by the Secretary of State who suggested that 11 000 patients were unnecessarily dying at the weekend.3 4 This claim was challenged at the time,5 and many pointed out that the National Health Service (NHS) was already a 7-day service.6 7 However, concern about the weekend led eventually to the introduction of ‘7 day services’ in the NHS in England. A new set of 10 clinical standards was introduced to reduce differences between weekend and weekday services, including increased involvement of consultants in the first 24 hours of admission.8 9 A cross-sectional analysis covering the period before introduction showed no association between specialist intensity and weekend admission mortality.10 Nevertheless, the programme did lead to many NHS hospital trusts reorganising services to viagra price cvs reduce differences in care delivery across the 7-day week. The reorganisation of services did not affect clinical outcomes11 nor was adoption of the clinical standards associated with any significant change in the magnitude of the weekend effect.12Possible underlying mechanisms. The weekend as proxy variableRecent systematic reviews have concluded that the weekend effect does exist, but the explanation for the finding is unclear.2 4 13–17 Patients admitted to hospital at the weekend are more likely to die than those during weekdays with ORs viagra price cvs of 1.16 (all studies)2 and 1.07 (UK studies),4 with reviews for some specific disease categories reporting higher ORs.2 13 The quality of studies is highly variable, with findings being influenced by methodological, clinical and service configuration factors2 with ongoing debate about likely mechanisms.

Why has it been so difficult to elucidate possible mechanisms?. To go more deeply into this, we need to consider viagra price cvs what role the weekend is playing in the design of all these studies.Bell and Redelmeier1 used two distinct designs in their original investigation, which might best be defined as an investigation of staffing levels and mortality. In their first analysis, the weekend is used as a proxy measure for differences in staffing. They targeted specific conditions such as ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm for which staffing on admission was viagra price cvs deemed likely to have an important impact on patient outcomes. Their second analysis took the opposite approach, by examining overall outcomes at the weekend and then speculating about which factors might explain any observed differences.

Most subsequent studies have used the second approach, which viagra price cvs has made it difficult to make progress on identifying the relevant factors driving any effect. If we do not define the questions and hypothesised relationships precisely, then we will not be able to identify how care delivered to patients is affected and which factors are responsible for poorer outcomes. Critically, if we cannot viagra price cvs identify the factors, then we cannot intelligently propose interventions to improve patient care.We therefore need to examine how the weekend as a proxy variable for staffing levels fits into the conceptual model. Is the proxy only associated with the determinant, often assumed to be staffing levels, or also with other possible confounders or factors that affect the outcome in question?. We recognise there are multiple possible sets of relationships, but examining three of them is sufficient to make the general argument viagra price cvs.

Figure 1 displays three possible sets of relationships, which correspond with three broad hypotheses about potential mechanisms and hence the interpretation of the weekend effect.Proxy measures in the context of studying a determinant - outcome relationship, applied to the weekend as a proxy variable for staffing." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Proxy measures in the context of studying a determinant - outcome relationship, applied to the weekend as a proxy variable for staffing.Levels of staffing on admission is the dominant influence on quality of care and mortality (panel A)This shows the ‘ideal’ and simplest situation when the proxy weekend/weekday variable is primarily associated with staffing in the first hours or days. The implied mechanism is that lower numbers of staff, particularly senior viagra price cvs staff, lead to poorer care and increased mortality. In that situation, weekend–weekday mortality differences, after adjustment for patient mix, can be presumed to be due to staffing differences. Bell and Redelmeier specifically tested this scenario by selecting those conditions for which the first few days of admission are viagra price cvs critical, that are treatable and where death may be rapid. For these conditions, insufficient staffing levels at admission (determinant) might cause delay in care processes (intermediate variable) and higher mortality (outcome).Patients at weekends are sicker and more likely to die (panel B)As many studies have shown, the weekend is associated with confounding variables.

Patients admitted at the weekend are known to be sicker18 19 and are less likely to be admitted from viagra price cvs emergency departments despite attendance rates being similar.16 20 Studies attempt to control for severity of condition and other confounders, but there is general agreement that it is simply not possible to control for all potential factors (and confounding by indication). There is always the possibility that, even after adjustment for severity of illness and other patient variables, viagra price cvs that differences in outcome are due to other patient factors that, for whatever reason, could not be included in the calculations. So for many conditions, this is an important alternative pathway to consider.Multiple factors affect care at the weekend, which in turn increases mortality (panel C)This model underlies the second approach by Bell and Redelmeier and many subsequent studies. The basic hypothesis is that patient outcomes differ between weekend and weekday, but this may be due to viagra price cvs multiple relationships and multiple interrelated variables. For instance, the average seniority or specialty level may differ between the groups of nurses and medical staff working during weekdays and weekends, and such differences in skill-mix may affect patient outcomes.21–23 Access to diagnostic tests or other ancillary services might also differ between weekends and weekdays, or there may be factors further along the patient pathway (in subsequent days after admission) such as how quickly any deterioration on the ward is detected.

In this scenario, uncertainty about the mechanisms of the weekend effect makes it very difficult to identify targeted interventions to improve outcomes for patients admitted at the weekend.The assumed intermediate variable of worse quality of careHypotheses 1 and 3 have the same intermediate variable, that viagra price cvs quality of care is poorer at the weekend—although for different reasons—and that this is the reason for higher mortality. Investigating this particular proposal requires, as many have noted, ‘painstaking detective work’,24 but few studies have directly examined the quality of care provided during weekdays and at weekends. In this issue of viagra price cvs BMJ Quality &. Safety, Bion and colleagues therefore add crucial evidence with their impressive and comprehensive study.25 They reviewed the quality of care delivered by examining case records from 4000 non-operative medical emergency admissions in 20 acute hospital trusts before and after introduction of the ‘7-day services’ in England. Records were randomly sampled from each trust, equally divided between the viagra price cvs two time periods and weekend versus weekday admissions.

They found that rates of errors and adverse events were not significantly different between weekdays and weekends and that this was the case both before and after introduction of the ‘7-day services’. They also made a direct assessment of intensity of senior medical staffing by comparing hours viagra price cvs of consultant time per 10 emergency admissions between Sundays and Wednesdays. This specialist intensity ratio was much lower at weekends (0.51 overall) and improved slightly (from 0.47 to 0.58) across periods. Their study therefore does not offer support for quality of care being worse at the weekend or that senior staff involvement at an early point in the patient’s admission is significantly associated with overall quality of viagra price cvs care. We should note, however, that operative patients were excluded, so it remains possible that care is poorer for some other groups of patients.The implicit assumption in many previous studies, and most political discourse, is that the weekend is simply a reflection and proxy for lower levels of skilled staff, particularly medical staff.

Proxy variables are of course used all the time in research and can be viagra price cvs very helpful if they are ‘close’ to the variable of interest. For instance, we might use the prescription record of a medication as a proxy for the actual medication administered to the patient. We are viagra price cvs then confident of what the proxy means and how it relates to the actual variable of interest. Even though some patients may decide not to collect their medication or be non-adherent in taking it, interpreting the proxy is relatively straightforward.In contrast, the weekend/weekday comparison is a distant and complex proxy. Care could potentially be different viagra price cvs for a whole variety of reasons, which are only partly dependent on levels of skilled medical staff.

Diagnostic tests and investigations may not be readily available. Coordination between viagra price cvs different specialties may be problematic within the hospital or between primary and secondary care and so on. Each of these may cause delay in a care process that may (in combination) affect patient outcomes. In addition, conditions vary in the extent to which delays viagra price cvs in the first few days are critical in preventing death. Some primarily require skilled staff on admission, while others are more vulnerable to later deterioration on wards and need care from experienced nurses in the days following admission.Should viagra price cvs we continue studying the weekend effect?.

We do not doubt that studies of the weekend effect have been worthwhile. Clearly, the higher mortality at weekends originally identified viagra price cvs 20 years ago merited investigation. The question is whether it is worthwhile to continue to conduct similar studies in the future given the limited funding and research time available. What avenues viagra price cvs of inquiry are most likely to benefit patients?. The ultimate aim of all concerned is to improve care given to patients.

The weekend effect viagra price cvs is only important as a potential marker of other problems. Local reviews of mortality or other indices of quality should always be alert to variations in the quality of care over the week, and consider whether care is poorer at weekends or indeed at any particular time of the day, week or year. However, we consider that there is no reason to carry out further studies that simply demonstrate a weekend effect viagra price cvs. We need instead to turn our attention to the factors directly influencing quality of care for which the weekend has been a proxy.Bion and colleagues provide a valuable illustration of research that examines the presumed causal relationships, looking at the actual care processes and so give a clearer indication of what kind of intervention might most benefit patients. Their study found that care had improved over time but that about 15% of patients received partial care and a small percentage received very poor care.25 These problems occurred throughout the week, affecting the larger viagra price cvs volume of patients treated on weekdays.

Following the example of the study by Bion et al, future studies could directly assess standards of care and the factors that most powerfully influence quality. A notable example is the study by Jayawardana and colleagues,26 showing viagra price cvs that the increased mortality for out-of-hours admissions with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction was explained by differences in door-to-needle time, identifying the specific care process on which interventions should be targeted. To improve clinical practice, we need evidence that will help us design targeted interventions to influence the quality of care delivered and thereby patient outcomes.The ‘7-day services’ initiative was introduced in England without a clear understanding of the causes of the weekend effect. The intervention, while well intentioned, was therefore poorly targeted viagra price cvs. Rather than a one-size-fits all initiative to increase consultant intensity, we should consider the much harder question on how to spend the same money to maximum effect.

Consultant time viagra price cvs is scarce and so should be tailored to the time, place and particular conditions where it is most beneficial over the week as a whole. For some patients though, more rapid access to diagnostic tests or the increased use of skilled nurses during recovery may be much more critical to improving outcomes. Studies of the weekend effect drew attention to potentially dangerous levels of viagra price cvs staffing that undoubtedly posed risks to patients. At this point, however, we need more precise studies that directly examine standards of care and the factors that influence the care delivered. We can then define and target interventions effectively and make best use of scarce resources.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.The Harvard Medical Practice Study brought the issue of viagra price cvs patient safety into the public eye and demonstrated that patients are often harmed by the care they receive.1 It used retrospective chart review to identify adverse events.

Since its publication in 1991, considerable focus has been placed on trying to improve the methods for understanding the prevalence of harm in hospitals. These efforts have led to deeper understanding of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the tools viagra price cvs we currently have for adverse event identification. Still, most organisations do not have robust approaches for tracking all types of harm routinely. Other efforts have sought to assess safety not just in hospitals but across national health systems, and at one point in time, and to track and viagra price cvs trend.Developing better approaches for measuring safety routinely is critical if we are to understand how many patients are being harmed, what the primary causes are and whether care is getting safer or less safe. However, it is also work that needs to be contextualised and the limitations of our tools must be appreciated.2 3The Irish National Adverse Event Study 2 (INAES-2) is presented in this issue.4 In this study, Connolly and colleagues used retrospective chart review to find adverse events at eight Irish hospitals in 2015 and compare these to previously reported data viagra price cvs from 2009.

Retrospective chart review was the first method used in this space5 6 and is still a mainstay for national studies assessing rates of adverse events,7–12 although approaches using claims data are also used widely and are much less expensive though much less sensitive.13 The original approach using retrospective chart review relied on information exclusively gathered from retrospective review of randomly selected medical records, but it has since been bolstered by the creation of standardised triggers,14 and more rigorous methods for chart review which make it more sensitive for finding adverse events, and more reliable. Despite this, retrospective chart review has many limitations, most notably the level of agreement between abstractors and its reliance on the completeness of documentation in medical charts.15The issue of reliance on documentation is especially important viagra price cvs. There have been well-conceived critiques that have raised concern related to underdocumentation of errors that occur in hospitals, as well as those that have raised concern that the findings from longitudinal studies looking at trends may be confounded by improved documentation resulting in an overestimation of the true (comparative) incidence of events. These are viagra price cvs both legitimate concerns. The INAES-2 study, as in prior similar work looking at multi-institution adverse event rates over time,16 17 showed an increase in events over time but no change in preventable harm.

We are left not knowing if this represents a change in safety or a change in documentation.These concerns have led other investigators to develop adverse event identification approaches to enable more real-time viagra price cvs identification, leveraging a broader set of data for the interpretation of the preventability and impact of these events.18 19 Prospective event identification, or the near real-time application of triggers, can also incorporate the perspectives of staff in the clinical environment around the time of the event to provide additional insights. Even with this more comprehensive, contemporaneous collection of data however, agreement continues to be variable between reviewers.20–22Looking to spontaneous reporting from front-line staff, rather than retrospectively or prospectively monitoring for triggers, is another method that has been proposed as a mechanism for identifying the prevalence of adverse events over time. Similar to documentation, however, concerns exist about the under-reporting of events by front-line staff in safety reporting systems.23 24 Moreover, spontaneous reporting routinely underestimates the viagra price cvs incidence of adverse events for some types of events by a factor of 20.25The inverse is also likely true that advances in safety culture may increase reporting, without any change in the frequency of actual events. Indeed, in the INAES-2 study, the researchers found that although safety reports increased threefold, adverse event rates did not change. This highlights the challenge of using viagra price cvs safety reports alone as a proxy for adverse events.

Instead, the insights from safety reporting may hold promise for other uses in the safety space, such as providing a signal for the degree of staff engagement in safety, enabling the identification of near misses and facilitating the identification of significant events that require root cause analysis.Because of the variability that exists in the methods mentioned, many investigators have attempted to identify more reliable ways to identify adverse events. Several studies have employed reimbursement codes (in the USA, International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes) as a mechanism to screen for adverse events.26–28 These systems, which aim to identify complications of medical care by looking for codes that are highly associated with adverse events, have largely been shown to be ineffective.29 30 This is likely to be multifactorial, with an inability to identify which conditions predated the current healthcare encounter, a lack of incentives to use coding to identify adverse events and their limited ability to accurately capture the full clinical picture all contributing to their limited efficacy.31Other viagra price cvs approaches have leveraged information systems to screen for adverse events, which is almost certainly how this will be done in the future.32 This works better for some categories of events than for others. Identification for some events is relatively straightforward, for example, for the development of acute kidney injury in which there is a biomarker to track (rise in creatinine), which routinely appears when the event is present. However, the viagra price cvs identification of newly altered mental status, for example, is much more challenging. For events such as falls, which are almost always documented in electronic health record (EHR) systems, this also works well.

Commercial products that sift viagra price cvs through data from the EHR are available to find adverse events for inpatients, while the situation regarding adverse event detection is much less advanced in the ambulatory setting, even though EHR use is widespread in developed countries. Among the main types of inpatient adverse events, hospital-acquired s, adverse drug events and falls can readily be detected in inpatients, while the situation is more complex for deep venous thromboses/pulmonary emboli, surgical injuries, specific types of pressure ulcers and missed diagnoses.32 Novel approaches that are highly effective for identifying wrong patient errors have been developed, such as ‘retract and reorder’ detection, which identifies these errors effectively.33 This has led to interventions such as showing the photograph of a patient to the ordering clinician, which reduced the likelihood of a wrong patient order by 43% in one study.34 Still, most organisations do not have a robust sense of how often their patients experience adverse events across the spectrum of care.The challenge of adverse event identification is multiplied by the importance of understanding one moment in time and, as the authors in the INAES-2 study aim to do, trying to look at trends. This will be essential as viagra price cvs we continue to mobilise large efforts to improve safety and as these compete with other priorities. As with all work in quality, having robust metrics is vital. In safety, however, we have in many ways been ‘flying blind’—initiating large-scale efforts to decrease the rate of adverse events without having reliable ways to measure their prevalence over time.It is important to emphasise that this lack of insight into performance is not equally distributed across all categories of adverse events.3 In fact, as proposed recently by Shojania and Marang-van de Mheen, the incidence of adverse events may be best understood as a composite measure—with all of the limitations that come with looking viagra price cvs at a measure with many composite parts.35 When broken apart, what we come to understand is that some of our mechanisms for identifying certain types of events are likely much more reliable than others.

In the USA, for example, where the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has leveraged standardised methods for collecting and reporting national performance on a set of specific healthcare-associated s, we have much better insight into performance over time related to such healthcare-associated s than we do, for instance, with diagnostic error.Lastly, the challenge of interpreting national adverse event data over time is complicated by the nuances associated with the interfaces between politics and science. In our personal experience, we have encountered challenges reporting results of safety studies that are tied to ministries of health.36 Related to the INAES-2 study specifically, Ireland has a long history of sensationalised media coverage of data pointing to opportunities for improved care, further complicating researchers’ ability to conduct this work free viagra price cvs of influence.37Ultimately, the work presented by Connolly and colleagues is critically important work and we suggest that all health systems should be monitoring adverse event rates over time. The mechanisms for doing this, though, should rapidly evolve. With hospitals increasingly leveraging EHRs, data being collected viagra price cvs in more uniform ways and advances in natural language processing and artificial intelligence, a future in which we have reliable measures of adverse events that are stable over time is likely within our reach. To get from here to there, an ongoing investment in research with evaluation including leveraging artificial intelligence and natural language processing, and a commitment to transparent data reporting and enabling collaboration between organisations and governments focused on this work is essential.38 If we can achieve this, we could reasonably expect a future in which we have access to publicly available meaningful data on how many people are being harmed, and in what context, which could in turn transform safety.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

What side effects may I notice from Viagra?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • breathing problems
  • changes in hearing
  • changes in vision, blurred vision, trouble telling blue from green color
  • chest pain
  • fast, irregular heartbeat
  • men: prolonged or painful erection (lasting more than 4 hours)
  • seizures

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • diarrhea
  • flushing
  • headache
  • indigestion
  • stuffy or runny nose

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

Viagra generico

Credit http://www.ec-nord-illkirch-graffenstaden.ac-strasbourg.fr/la-derniere-seance-de-piscine/ viagra generico. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia viagra generico in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb.

Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), viagra generico scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of viagra generico those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition.

In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings viagra generico translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause viagra generico of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous viagra generico tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition. The other viagra generico authors on this paper were Ginette A.

Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on viagra generico outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

- Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a viagra generico new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows. The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future viagra generico clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an viagra pill cost. These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that viagra generico historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain viagra generico cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow.

Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many viagra generico different cancer types was unclear. To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these viagra generico findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types.

Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of viagra generico the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one viagra generico of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds viagra generico extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a viagra, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on viagra generico cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether viagra generico cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs.

€œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says. Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman viagra generico &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

Credit http://www.ec-duppigheim.site.ac-strasbourg.fr/lecole/signaler-une-absence/ viagra price cvs. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly viagra price cvs affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb. Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue viagra price cvs elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries.

During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence viagra price cvs of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine viagra price cvs fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls.

Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause viagra price cvs of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says. However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess viagra price cvs fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition.

The other authors on this paper were viagra price cvs Ginette A. Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer viagra price cvs types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

- Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center viagra price cvs researchers shows. The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal viagra price cvs of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells. As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an .

These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such viagra price cvs as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow viagra price cvs. Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on viagra price cvs outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear.

To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different viagra price cvs tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be viagra price cvs explained by the mutational burden of that cancer.

€œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive. It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says viagra price cvs Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number viagra price cvs of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a viagra, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t viagra price cvs yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says.

Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

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5 and women viagra cvs pregnant women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN Continue Reading For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care. See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF). All of the attachments with the various levels are posted here. NEED TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID INCOME AND RESOURCE LEVELS? women viagra cvs.

Which household size applies?. The rules are complicated. See women viagra cvs rules here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels.

Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL New Yorkers. People in the "MAGI" category - those NOT on Medicare -- have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not women viagra cvs eligible before, or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &. Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school.

42 women viagra cvs C.F.R. § 435.4. Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% FPL for pregnant women and babies <. Age 1, 154% FPL for women viagra cvs children age 1 - 19.

CAUTION. What is counted as income may not be what you think. For the NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by the same rules as before, explained in this outline and these charts on women viagra cvs income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI).

There are good changes and bad changes. GOOD women viagra cvs. Veteran's benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income. BAD.

There is no more "spousal" women viagra cvs or parental refusal for this population (but there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of the rules see. ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person. HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the household women viagra cvs size are not intuitive or even logical.

There are different rules depending on the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size. People who are Disabled, women viagra cvs Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size. These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with some exceptions explained in this article.

Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population. Their household size will be determined using federal income tax rules, women viagra cvs which are very complicated. New rule is explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (PDF) pp. 8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size.

See women viagra cvs slides 28-49. Also seeLegal Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient. Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category. Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that child's income causes other women viagra cvs family members to lose Medicaid eligibility.

See 18 NYCRR 360-4.2, MRG p. 573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION. Different people women viagra cvs in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI.

The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid. Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women viagra cvs women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL). Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples.

This category had lower income women viagra cvs limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income. This category has now been subsumed under the new MAGI adult group whose limit is now raised to 138% FPL. Family Health Plus - this was an expansion of Medicaid to families with income up to 150% women viagra cvs FPL and for childless adults up to 100% FPL.

This has now been folded into the new MAGI adult group whose limit is 138% FPL. For applicants between 138%-150% FPL, they will be eligible for a new program where Medicaid will subsidize their purchase of Qualified Health Plans on the Exchange. PAST women viagra cvs INCOME &. RESOURCE LEVELS -- Past Medicaid income and resource levels in NYS are shown on these oldNYC HRA charts for 2001 through 2019, in chronological order.

These include Medicaid levels for MAGI and non-MAGI populations, Child Health Plus, MBI-WPD, Medicare Savings Programs and other public health programs in NYS. This article was authored by the Evelyn Frank Legal Resources women viagra cvs Program of New York Legal Assistance Group.A huge barrier to people returning to the community from nursing homes is the high cost of housing. One way New York State is trying to address that barrier is with the Special Housing Disregard that allows certain members of Managed Long Term Care or FIDA plans to keep more of their income to pay for rent or other shelter costs, rather than having to "spend down" their "excess income" or spend-down on the cost of Medicaid home care. The special income standard for housing expenses helps pay for housing expenses to help certain nursing home or adult home residents to safely transition back to the community with MLTC.

Originally it was just for former nursing home residents but in 2014 it was expanded women viagra cvs to include people who lived in adult homes. GIS 14/MA-017 Since you are allowed to keep more of your income, you may no longer need to use a pooled trust. KNOW YOUR RIGHTS - FACT SHEET on THREE ways to Reduce Spend-down, including this Special Income Standard. September 2018 NEWS -- Those already enrolled in MLTC plans before women viagra cvs they are admitted to a nursing home or adult home may obtain this budgeting upon discharge, if they meet the other criteria below.

"How nursing home administrators, adult home operators and MLTC plans should identify individuals who are eligible for the special income standard" and explains their duties to identify eligible individuals, and the MLTC plan must notify the local DSS that the individual may qualify. "Nursing home administrators, nursing home discharge planning staff, adult home operators and MLTC health plans are encouraged to identify individuals who may qualify for the special income standard, if they can be safely discharged back to the community from a nursing home and enroll in, or remain enrolled in, an MLTC plan. Once an individual has been accepted into an MLTC plan, the MLTC plan women viagra cvs must notify the individual's local district of social services that the transition has occurred and that the individual may qualify for the special income standard. The special income standard will be effective upon enrollment into the MLTC plan, or, for nursing home residents already enrolled in an MLTC plan, the month of discharge to the community.

Questions regarding the special income standard may be directed to DOH at 518-474-8887. Who is eligible for this special women viagra cvs income standard?. must be age 18+, must have been in a nursing home or an adult home for 30 days or more, must have had Medicaid pay toward the nursing home care, and must enroll in or REMAIN ENROLLED IN a Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) plan or FIDA plan upon leaving the nursing home or adult home must have a housing expense if married, spouse may not receive a "spousal impoverishment" allowance once the individual is enrolled in MLTC. How much is the allowance?.

The rates vary by region and change women viagra cvs yearly. Region Counties Deduction (2020) Central Broome, Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, St. Lawrence, Tioga, Tompkins $436 Long Island Nassau, Suffolk $1,361 NYC Bronx, Kings, Manhattan, Queens, Richmond $1,451 (up from 1,300 in 2019) Northeastern Albany, Clinton, Columbia, Delaware, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hamilton, Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren, Washington $483 North Metropolitan Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, Westchester $930 Rochester Chemung, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne, Yates $444 Western Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, Orleans, Wyoming $386 Past rates published as follows, available on DOH website 2020 rates published in Attachment I to GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2019 rates published in Attachment 1 to GIS 18/MA015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2018 rates published in GIS 17 MA/020 - 2018 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates. The guidance on how women viagra cvs the standardized amount of the disregard is calculated is found in NYS DOH 12- ADM-05.

2017 rate -- GIS 16 MA/018 - 2016 Medicaid Only Income and Resource Levels and Spousal Impoverishment Standards Attachment 12016 rate -- GIS 15-MA/0212015 rate -- Were not posted by DOH but were updated in WMS. 2015 Central $382 Long Island $1,147 NYC $1,001 Northeastern $440 N. Metropolitan $791 women viagra cvs Rochester $388 Western $336 2014 rate -- GIS-14-MA/017 HOW DOES IT WORK?. Here is a sample budget for a single person in NYC with Social Security income of $2,386/month paying a Medigap premium of $261/mo.

Gross monthly income $2,575.50 DEDUCT Health insurance premiums (Medicare Part B) - 135.50 (Medigap) - 261.00 DEDUCT Unearned income disregard - 20 DEDUCT Shelter deduction (NYC—2019) - 1,300 DEDUCT Income limit for single (2019) - 859 Excess income or Spend-down $0 WITH NO SPEND-DOWN, May NOT NEED POOLED TRUST!. HOW TO OBTAIN THE women viagra cvs HOUSING DISREGARD. When you are ready to leave the nursing home or adult home, or soon after you leave, you or your MLTC plan must request that your local Medicaid program change your Medicaid budget to give you the Housing Disregard. See September 2018 NYS DOH Medicaid Update that requires MLTC plan to help you ask for it.

The procedures in NYC are explained in this Troubleshooting guide. NYC Medicaid program prefers that your MLTC plan file the request, using Form MAP-3057E - Special income housing Expenses NH-MLTC.pdf and Form MAP-3047B - MLTC/NHED Cover Sheet Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(DIscharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard. GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVES (beginning with oldest). NYS DOH 12- ADM-05 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility who Enroll into the Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) Program Attachment II - OHIP-0057 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Discharged from a Skilled Nursing Facility and Enrolled in a Managed Long Term Care Plan) Attachment III - Attachment III – OHIP-0058 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Disenrolled from a Managed Long Term Care Plan, No Special Income Standard) MLTC Policy 13.02.

MLTC Housing Disregard NYC HRA Medicaid Alert Special Income Standard for housing expenses NH-MLTC 2-9-2013.pdf 2018-07-28 HRA MICSA ALERT Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility and who Enroll into the MLTC Program - update on previous policy. References Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(Discharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard. GIS 18 MA/012 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Certain Managed Long-Term Care Enrollees Who are Discharged from a Nursing Home issued Sept. 28, 2018 - this finally implements the most recent Special Terms &.

Conditions of the CMS 1115 Waiver that governs the MLTC program, dated Jan. 19, 2017.

65, Does not have viagra price cvs Medicare)(OR has Medicare and has dependent child <. 18 or <. 19 in school) 138% FPL*** Children <.

5 and pregnant women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care viagra price cvs. See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF). All of the attachments with the various levels are posted here.

NEED TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID INCOME AND viagra price cvs RESOURCE LEVELS?. Which household size applies?. The rules are complicated.

See viagra price cvs rules here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels. Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL New Yorkers.

People in the "MAGI" category - those NOT on Medicare -- have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not eligible before, or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a viagra price cvs "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &. Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school.

42 C.F.R viagra price cvs. § 435.4. Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% FPL for pregnant women and babies <.

Age 1, 154% FPL for children viagra price cvs age 1 - 19. CAUTION. What is counted as income may not be what you think.

For the NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by the same rules as before, explained in this outline and viagra price cvs these charts on income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI). There are good changes and bad changes.

GOOD viagra price cvs. Veteran's benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income. BAD.

There is no more "spousal" or parental refusal for viagra price cvs this population (but there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of the rules see. ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person.

HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the viagra price cvs household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules depending on the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size.

People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size viagra price cvs. These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with some exceptions explained in this article. Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population.

Their household size will be determined using viagra price cvs federal income tax rules, which are very complicated. New rule is explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (PDF) pp. 8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size.

See viagra price cvs slides 28-49. Also seeLegal Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient. Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category.

Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that viagra price cvs child's income causes other family members to lose Medicaid eligibility. See 18 NYCRR 360-4.2, MRG p. 573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION.

Different people in the viagra price cvs same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI. The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid.

Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL viagra price cvs for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL). Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples.

This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits viagra price cvs. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income. This category has now been subsumed under the new MAGI adult group whose limit is now raised to 138% FPL.

Family viagra price cvs Health Plus - this was an expansion of Medicaid to families with income up to 150% FPL and for childless adults up to 100% FPL. This has now been folded into the new MAGI adult group whose limit is 138% FPL. For applicants between 138%-150% FPL, they will be eligible for a new program where Medicaid will subsidize their purchase of Qualified Health Plans on the Exchange.

PAST INCOME viagra price cvs &. RESOURCE LEVELS -- Past Medicaid income and resource levels in NYS are shown on these oldNYC HRA charts for 2001 through 2019, in chronological order. These include Medicaid levels for MAGI and non-MAGI populations, Child Health Plus, MBI-WPD, Medicare Savings Programs and other public health programs in NYS.

This article was authored by the Evelyn Frank Legal Resources Program of New York Legal Assistance Group.A huge barrier to people returning to the community viagra price cvs from nursing homes is the high cost of housing. One way New York State is trying to address that barrier is with the Special Housing Disregard that allows certain members of Managed Long Term Care or FIDA plans to keep more of their income to pay for rent or other shelter costs, rather than having to "spend down" their "excess income" or spend-down on the cost of Medicaid home care. The special income standard for housing expenses helps pay for housing expenses to help certain nursing home or adult home residents to safely transition back to the community with MLTC.

Originally it was just for former nursing home residents but in 2014 it was viagra price cvs expanded to include people who lived in adult homes. GIS 14/MA-017 Since you are allowed to keep more of your income, you may no longer need to use a pooled trust. KNOW YOUR RIGHTS - FACT SHEET on THREE ways to Reduce Spend-down, including this Special Income Standard.

September 2018 NEWS -- Those already enrolled in MLTC plans before they are admitted to a nursing home or adult home may obtain this budgeting upon discharge, if they meet the other viagra price cvs criteria below. "How nursing home administrators, adult home operators and MLTC plans should identify individuals who are eligible for the special income standard" and explains their duties to identify eligible individuals, and the MLTC plan must notify the local DSS that the individual may qualify. "Nursing home administrators, nursing home discharge planning staff, adult home operators and MLTC health plans are encouraged to identify individuals who may qualify for the special income standard, if they can be safely discharged back to the community from a nursing home and enroll in, or remain enrolled in, an MLTC plan.

Once an individual has been accepted into an MLTC plan, the MLTC plan must notify the individual's local district of social services that the transition has occurred and that the viagra price cvs individual may qualify for the special income standard. The special income standard will be effective upon enrollment into the MLTC plan, or, for nursing home residents already enrolled in an MLTC plan, the month of discharge to the community. Questions regarding the special income standard may be directed to DOH at 518-474-8887.

Who is eligible for this special income viagra price cvs standard?. must be age 18+, must have been in a nursing home or an adult home for 30 days or more, must have had Medicaid pay toward the nursing home care, and must enroll in or REMAIN ENROLLED IN a Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) plan or FIDA plan upon leaving the nursing home or adult home must have a housing expense if married, spouse may not receive a "spousal impoverishment" allowance once the individual is enrolled in MLTC. How much is the allowance?.

The rates vary by viagra price cvs region and change yearly. Region Counties Deduction (2020) Central Broome, Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, St. Lawrence, Tioga, Tompkins $436 Long Island Nassau, Suffolk $1,361 NYC Bronx, Kings, Manhattan, Queens, Richmond $1,451 (up from 1,300 in 2019) Northeastern Albany, Clinton, Columbia, Delaware, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hamilton, Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren, Washington $483 North Metropolitan Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, Westchester $930 Rochester Chemung, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne, Yates $444 Western Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, Orleans, Wyoming $386 Past rates published as follows, available on DOH website 2020 rates published in Attachment I to GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2019 rates published in Attachment 1 to GIS 18/MA015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2018 rates published in GIS 17 MA/020 - 2018 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates.

The guidance viagra price cvs on how the standardized amount of the disregard is calculated is found in NYS DOH 12- ADM-05. 2017 rate -- GIS 16 MA/018 - 2016 Medicaid Only Income and Resource Levels and Spousal Impoverishment Standards Attachment 12016 rate -- GIS 15-MA/0212015 rate -- Were not posted by DOH but were updated in WMS. 2015 Central $382 Long Island $1,147 NYC $1,001 Northeastern $440 N.

Metropolitan $791 Rochester $388 Western $336 2014 rate -- GIS-14-MA/017 viagra price cvs HOW DOES IT WORK?. Here is a sample budget for a single person in NYC with Social Security income of $2,386/month paying a Medigap premium of $261/mo. Gross monthly income $2,575.50 DEDUCT Health insurance premiums (Medicare Part B) - 135.50 (Medigap) - 261.00 DEDUCT Unearned income disregard - 20 DEDUCT Shelter deduction (NYC—2019) - 1,300 DEDUCT Income limit for single (2019) - 859 Excess income or Spend-down $0 WITH NO SPEND-DOWN, May NOT NEED POOLED TRUST!.

HOW TO OBTAIN THE HOUSING DISREGARD. When you are ready to leave the nursing home or adult home, or soon after you leave, you or your MLTC plan must request that your local Medicaid program change your Medicaid budget to give you the Housing Disregard. See September 2018 NYS DOH Medicaid Update that requires MLTC plan to help you ask for it.

The procedures in NYC are explained in this Troubleshooting guide. NYC Medicaid program prefers that your MLTC plan file the request, using Form MAP-3057E - Special income housing Expenses NH-MLTC.pdf and Form MAP-3047B - MLTC/NHED Cover Sheet Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(DIscharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard. GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVES (beginning with oldest).

NYS DOH 12- ADM-05 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility who Enroll into the Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) Program Attachment II - OHIP-0057 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Discharged from a Skilled Nursing Facility and Enrolled in a Managed Long Term Care Plan) Attachment III - Attachment III – OHIP-0058 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Disenrolled from a Managed Long Term Care Plan, No Special Income Standard) MLTC Policy 13.02. MLTC Housing Disregard NYC HRA Medicaid Alert Special Income Standard for housing expenses NH-MLTC 2-9-2013.pdf 2018-07-28 HRA MICSA ALERT Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility and who Enroll into the MLTC Program - update on previous policy. References Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(Discharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard.

GIS 18 MA/012 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Certain Managed Long-Term Care Enrollees Who are Discharged from a Nursing Home issued Sept.

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Start Preamble Centers for Medicare What i should buy with seroquel & does viagra make your penis bigger. Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. Extension of timeline does viagra make your penis bigger for publication of final rule.

This notice announces an extension of the timeline for publication of a Medicare final rule in accordance with the Social Security Act, which allows us to extend the timeline for publication of the final rule. As of does viagra make your penis bigger August 26, 2020, the timeline for publication of the final rule to finalize the provisions of the October 17, 2019 proposed rule (84 FR 55766) is extended until August 31, 2021. Start Further Info Lisa O.

Wilson, (410) 786-8852. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information In the October 17, 2019 Federal Register (84 FR 55766), we published does viagra make your penis bigger a proposed rule that addressed undue regulatory impact and burden of the physician self-referral law. The proposed rule was issued in conjunction with the Centers for Medicare &.

Medicaid Services' (CMS) Patients over Paperwork initiative and does viagra make your penis bigger the Department of Health and Human Services' (the Department or HHS) Regulatory Sprint to Coordinated Care. In the proposed rule, we proposed exceptions to the physician self-referral law for certain value-based compensation arrangements between or among physicians, providers, and suppliers. A new exception for certain arrangements under which a physician receives limited remuneration for items or services actually provided by the physician.

A new exception for does viagra make your penis bigger donations of cybersecurity technology and related services. And amendments to the existing exception for electronic health records (EHR) items and services. The proposed does viagra make your penis bigger rule also provides critically necessary guidance for physicians and health care providers and suppliers whose financial relationships are governed by the physician self-referral statute and regulations.

This notice announces an extension of the timeline for publication of the final rule and the continuation of effectiveness of the proposed rule. Section 1871(a)(3)(A) of the Social Security Act (the Act) requires us to establish and publish a regular timeline for the publication of final regulations based on the previous publication of a proposed regulation. In accordance with section does viagra make your penis bigger 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act, the timeline may vary among different regulations based on differences in the complexity of the regulation, the number and scope of comments received, and other relevant factors, but may not be longer than 3 years except under exceptional circumstances.

In addition, in accordance with section 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act, the Secretary may extend the initial targeted publication date of the final regulation if the Secretary, no later than the regulation's previously established proposed publication date, publishes a notice with the new target date, and such notice includes a brief explanation of the justification for the variation. We announced in the Spring 2020 Unified Agenda (June 30, 2020, www.reginfo.gov) that we would issue does viagra make your penis bigger the final rule in August 2020. However, we are still working through the Start Printed Page 52941complexity of the issues raised by comments received on the proposed rule and therefore we are not able to meet the announced publication target date.

This notice extends the timeline for publication does viagra make your penis bigger of the final rule until August 31, 2021. Start Signature Dated. August 24, 2020.

Wilma M does viagra make your penis bigger. Robinson, Deputy Executive Secretary to the Department, Department of Health and Human Services. End Signature End Supplemental does viagra make your penis bigger Information [FR Doc.

2020-18867 Filed 8-26-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4120-01-PStart Preamble Notice of amendment. The Secretary issues this amendment pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act to add additional categories of Qualified Persons and amend the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends does viagra make your penis bigger the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures.

This amendment to the Declaration published on March 17, 2020 (85 FR 15198) is effective as of August 24, 2020. Start Further does viagra make your penis bigger Info Robert P. Kadlec, MD, MTM&H, MS, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20201.

Telephone. 202-205-2882. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREP Act) authorizes the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) to issue a Declaration to provide liability immunity to certain individuals and entities (Covered Persons) against any claim of loss caused by, arising out of, relating to, or resulting from the manufacture, distribution, administration, or use of medical countermeasures (Covered Countermeasures), except for claims involving “willful misconduct” as defined in the PREP Act.

Under the PREP Act, a Declaration may be amended as circumstances warrant. The PREP Act was enacted on December 30, 2005, as Public Law 109-148, Division C, § 2. It amended the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, adding section 319F-3, which addresses liability immunity, and section 319F-4, which creates a compensation program.

These sections are codified at 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d and 42 U.S.C. 247d-6e, respectively.

Section 319F-3 of the PHS Act has been amended by the viagra and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act (PAHPRA), Public Law 113-5, enacted on March 13, 2013 and the erectile dysfunction Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, Public Law 116-136, enacted on March 27, Start Printed Page 521372020, to expand Covered Countermeasures under the PREP Act. On January 31, 2020, the Secretary declared a public health emergency pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, 42 U.S.C. 247d, effective January 27, 2020, for the entire United States to aid in the response of the nation's health care community to the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak.

Pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, the Secretary renewed that declaration on April 26, 2020, and July 25, 2020. On March 10, 2020, the Secretary issued a Declaration under the PREP Act for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment (85 FR 15198, Mar. 17, 2020) (the Declaration).

On April 10, the Secretary amended the Declaration under the PREP Act to extend liability immunity to covered countermeasures authorized under the CARES Act (85 FR 21012, Apr. 15, 2020). On June 4, the Secretary amended the Declaration to clarify that covered countermeasures under the Declaration include qualified countermeasures that limit the harm erectile dysfunction treatment might otherwise cause.

The Secretary now amends section V of the Declaration to identify as qualified persons covered under the PREP Act, and thus authorizes, certain State-licensed pharmacists to order and administer, and pharmacy interns (who are licensed or registered by their State board of pharmacy and acting under the supervision of a State-licensed pharmacist) to administer, any treatment that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule (ACIP-recommended treatments).[] The Secretary also amends section VIII of the Declaration to clarify that the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures includes not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction or a viagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a viagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases. Description of This Amendment by Section Section V. Covered Persons Under the PREP Act and the Declaration, a “qualified person” is a “covered person.” Subject to certain limitations, a covered person is immune from suit and liability under Federal and State law with respect to all claims for loss caused by, arising out of, relating to, or resulting from the administration or use of a covered countermeasure if a declaration under subsection (b) has been issued with respect to such countermeasure.

€œQualified person” includes (A) a licensed health professional or other individual who is authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense such countermeasures under the law of the State in which the countermeasure was prescribed, administered, or dispensed. Or (B) “a person within a category of persons so identified in a declaration by the Secretary” under subsection (b) of the PREP Act. 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(8).[] By this amendment to the Declaration, the Secretary identifies an additional category of persons who are qualified persons under section 247d-6d(i)(8)(B).[] On May 8, 2020, CDC reported, “The identified declines in routine pediatric treatment ordering and doses administered might indicate that U.S. Children and their communities face increased risks for outbreaks of treatment-preventable diseases,” and suggested that a decrease in rates of routine childhood vaccinations were due to changes in healthcare access, social distancing, and other erectile dysfunction treatment mitigation strategies.[] The report also stated that “[p]arental concerns about potentially exposing their children to erectile dysfunction treatment during well child visits might contribute to the declines observed.” [] On July 10, 2020, CDC reported its findings of a May survey it conducted to assess the capacity of pediatric health care practices to provide immunization services to children during the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. The survey, which was limited to practices participating in the treatments for Children program, found that, as of mid-May, 15 percent of Northeast pediatric practices were closed, 12.5 percent of Midwest practices were closed, 6.2 percent of practices in the South were closed, and 10 percent of practices in the West were closed.

Most practices had reduced office hours for in-person visits. When asked whether their practices would likely be able to accommodate new patients for immunization services through August, 418 practices (21.3 percent) either responded that this was not likely or the practice was permanently closed or not resuming immunization services for all patients, and 380 (19.6 percent) responded that they were unsure. Urban practices and those in the Northeast were less likely to be able to accommodate new patients compared with rural practices and those in the South, Midwest, or West.[] In response to these troubling developments, CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics have stressed, “Well-child visits and vaccinations are essential services and help make sure children are protected.” [] The Secretary re-emphasizes that important recommendation to parents and legal guardians here.

If your child is due for a well-child visit, contact your pediatrician's or other primary-care provider's office and ask about ways that the office safely offers well-child visits and vaccinations. Many medical offices are taking extra steps to make sure that well-child visits can occur safely during the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including. Scheduling sick visits and well-child visits during different times of the Start Printed Page 52138day or days of the week, or at different locations.

Asking patients to remain outside until it is time for their appointments to reduce the number of people in waiting rooms. Adhering to recommended social (physical) distancing and other -control practices, such as the use of masks. The decrease in childhood-vaccination rates is a public health threat and a collateral harm caused by erectile dysfunction treatment.

Together, the United States must turn to available medical professionals to limit the harm and public health threats that may result from decreased immunization rates. We must quickly do so to avoid preventable s in children, additional strains on our healthcare system, and any further increase in avoidable adverse health consequences—particularly if such complications coincide with additional resurgence of erectile dysfunction treatment. Together with pediatricians and other healthcare professionals, pharmacists are positioned to expand access to childhood vaccinations.

Many States already allow pharmacists to administer treatments to children of any age.[] Other States permit pharmacists to administer treatments to children depending on the age—for example, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, or 12 years of age and older.[] Few States restrict pharmacist-administered vaccinations to only adults.[] Many States also allow properly trained individuals under the supervision of a trained pharmacist to administer those treatments.[] Pharmacists are well positioned to increase access to vaccinations, particularly in certain areas or for certain populations that have too few pediatricians and other primary-care providers, or that are otherwise medically underserved.[] As of 2018, nearly 90 percent of Americans lived within five miles of a community pharmacy.[] Pharmacies often offer extended hours and added convenience. What is more, pharmacists are trusted healthcare professionals with established relationships with their patients. Pharmacists also have strong relationships with local medical providers and hospitals to refer patients as appropriate.

For example, pharmacists already play a significant role in annual influenza vaccination. In the early 2018-19 season, they administered the influenza treatment to nearly a third of all adults who received the treatment.[] Given the potential danger of serious influenza and continuing erectile dysfunction treatment outbreaks this autumn and the impact that such concurrent outbreaks may have on our population, our healthcare system, and our whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, we must quickly expand access to influenza vaccinations. Allowing more qualified pharmacists to administer the influenza treatment to children will make vaccinations more accessible.

Therefore, the Secretary amends the Declaration to identify State-licensed pharmacists (and pharmacy interns acting under their supervision if the pharmacy intern is licensed or registered by his or her State board of pharmacy) as qualified persons under section 247d-6d(i)(8)(B) when the pharmacist orders and either the pharmacist or the supervised pharmacy intern administers treatments to individuals ages three through 18 pursuant to the following requirements. The treatment must be FDA-authorized or FDA-approved. The vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule.[] The licensed pharmacist must complete a practical training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE).

This training Start Printed Page 52139program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.[] The licensed or registered pharmacy intern must complete a practical training program that is approved by the ACPE. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.[] The licensed pharmacist and licensed or registered pharmacy intern must have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation.[] The licensed pharmacist must complete a minimum of two hours of ACPE-approved, immunization-related continuing pharmacy education during each State licensing period.[] The licensed pharmacist must comply with recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the jurisdiction in which he or she administers treatments, including informing the patient's primary-care provider when available, submitting the required immunization information to the State or local immunization information system (treatment registry), complying with requirements with respect to reporting adverse events, and complying with requirements whereby the person administering a treatment must review the treatment registry or other vaccination records prior to administering a treatment.[] The licensed pharmacist must inform his or her childhood-vaccination patients and the adult caregivers accompanying the children of the importance of a well-child visit with a pediatrician or other licensed primary-care provider and refer patients as appropriate.[] These requirements are consistent with those in many States that permit licensed pharmacists to order and administer treatments to children and permit licensed or registered pharmacy interns acting under their supervision to administer treatments to children.[] Administering vaccinations to children age three and older is less complicated and requires less training and resources than administering vaccinations to younger children. That is because ACIP generally recommends administering intramuscular injections in the deltoid muscle for individuals age three and older.[] For individuals less than three years of age, ACIP generally recommends administering intramuscular injections in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh muscle.[] Administering injections in the thigh muscle often presents additional complexities and requires additional training and resources including additional personnel to safely position the child while another healthcare professional injects the treatment.[] Moreover, as of 2018, 40% of three-year-olds were enrolled in preprimary programs (i.e.

Preschool or kindergarten programs).[] Preprimary programs are beginning in the coming weeks or months, so the Secretary has concluded that it is particularly important for individuals ages three through 18 to receive ACIP-recommended treatments according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule. All States require children to be vaccinated against certain communicable diseases as a condition of school attendance. These laws often apply to both public and private schools with identical immunization and exemption provisions.[] As nurseries, preschools, kindergartens, and schools reopen, increased access to childhood vaccinations is essential to ensuring children can return.

Notwithstanding any State or local scope-of-practice legal requirements, (1) qualified licensed pharmacists are identified as qualified persons to order and administer ACIP-recommended treatments and (2) qualified State-licensed or registered pharmacy interns are identified as qualified persons to administer the ACIP-recommended treatments ordered by their supervising qualified licensed pharmacist.[] Both the PREP Act and the June 4, 2020 Second Amendment to the Declaration define “covered countermeasures” to include qualified viagra and epidemic products that “limit the harm such viagra or epidemic might otherwise cause.” [] The troubling decrease in ACIP-recommended childhood vaccinations and the resulting increased risk of associated diseases, adverse health conditions, and other threats are categories of harms otherwise caused by Start Printed Page 52140erectile dysfunction treatment as set forth in Sections VI and VIII of this Declaration.[] Hence, such vaccinations are “covered countermeasures” under the PREP Act and the June 4, 2020 Second Amendment to the Declaration. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed to affect the National treatment Injury Compensation Program, including an injured party's ability to obtain compensation under that program. Covered countermeasures that are subject to the National treatment Injury Compensation Program authorized under 42 U.S.C.

300aa-10 et seq. Are covered under this Declaration for the purposes of liability immunity and injury compensation only to the extent that injury compensation is not provided under that Program. All other terms and conditions of the Declaration apply to such covered countermeasures.

Section VIII. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat As discussed, the troubling decrease in ACIP-recommended childhood vaccinations and the resulting increased risk of associated diseases, adverse health conditions, and other threats are categories of harms otherwise caused by erectile dysfunction treatment. The Secretary therefore amends section VIII, which describes the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures, to clarify that the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures is not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction or a viagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a viagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases.

Amendments to Declaration Amended Declaration for Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act Coverage for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment. Sections V and VIII of the March 10, 2020 Declaration under the PREP Act for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment, as amended April 10, 2020 and June 4, 2020, are further amended pursuant to section 319F-3(b)(4) of the PHS Act as described below. All other sections of the Declaration remain in effect as published at 85 FR 15198 (Mar.

17, 2020) and amended at 85 FR 21012 (Apr. 15, 2020) and 85 FR 35100 (June 8, 2020). 1.

Covered Persons, section V, delete in full and replace with. V. Covered Persons 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(2), (3), (4), (6), (8)(A) and (B) Covered Persons who are afforded liability immunity under this Declaration are “manufacturers,” “distributors,” “program planners,” “qualified persons,” and their officials, agents, and employees, as those terms are defined in the PREP Act, and the United States. In addition, I have determined that the following additional persons are qualified persons. (a) Any person authorized in accordance with the public health and medical emergency response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as described in Section VII below, to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures, and their officials, agents, employees, contractors and volunteers, following a Declaration of an emergency.

(b) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense the Covered Countermeasures or who is otherwise authorized to perform an activity under an Emergency Use Authorization in accordance with Section 564 of the FD&C Act. (c) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense Covered Countermeasures in accordance with Section 564A of the FD&C Act. And (d) a State-licensed pharmacist who orders and administers, and pharmacy interns who administer (if the pharmacy intern acts under the supervision of such pharmacist and the pharmacy intern is licensed or registered by his or her State board of pharmacy), treatments that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule.

Such State-licensed pharmacists and the State-licensed or registered interns under their supervision are qualified persons only if the following requirements are met. The treatment must be FDA-authorized or FDA-approved. The vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule.

The licensed pharmacist must complete a practical training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. The licensed or registered pharmacy intern must complete a practical training program that is approved by the ACPE.

This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. The licensed pharmacist and licensed or registered pharmacy intern must have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The licensed pharmacist must complete a minimum of two hours of ACPE-approved, immunization-related continuing pharmacy education during each State licensing period.

The licensed pharmacist must comply with recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the jurisdiction in which he or she administers treatments, including informing the patient's primary-care provider when available, submitting the required immunization information to the State or local immunization information system (treatment registry), complying with requirements with respect to reporting adverse events, and complying with requirements whereby the person administering a treatment must review the treatment registry or other vaccination records prior to administering a treatment. The licensed pharmacist must inform his or her childhood-vaccination patients and the adult caregiver accompanying the child of the importance of a well-child visit with a pediatrician or other licensed primary-care provider and refer patients as appropriate. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed to affect the National treatment Injury Compensation Program, including an injured party's ability to obtain compensation under that program.

Covered countermeasures that are subject to the National treatment Injury Compensation Program authorized under 42 U.S.C. 300aa-10 et seq. Are covered under this Declaration for the purposes of liability immunity and injury compensation only to the extent that injury compensation is not provided under that Program.

All other Start Printed Page 52141terms and conditions of the Declaration apply to such covered countermeasures. 2. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat, section VIII, delete in full and replace with.

VIII. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(2)(A) The category of disease, health condition, or threat for which I recommend the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures is not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction or a viagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a viagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases.

Start Authority 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d. End Authority Start Signature Dated.

August 19, 2020. Alex M. Azar II, Secretary of Health and Human Services.

End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-18542 Filed 8-20-20. 4:15 pm]BILLING CODE 4150-03-P.

Start Preamble viagra price cvs Centers for Medicare & http://johannameyers.com/what-i-should-buy-with-seroquel/. Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. Extension of timeline for publication viagra price cvs of final rule. This notice announces an extension of the timeline for publication of a Medicare final rule in accordance with the Social Security Act, which allows us to extend the timeline for publication of the final rule. As of August 26, 2020, the timeline for publication of the final rule to finalize the provisions of the October 17, 2019 proposed rule (84 FR 55766) is extended viagra price cvs until August 31, 2021.

Start Further Info Lisa O. Wilson, (410) 786-8852. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information In the October 17, 2019 Federal Register (84 viagra price cvs FR 55766), we published a proposed rule that addressed undue regulatory impact and burden of the physician self-referral law. The proposed rule was issued in conjunction with the Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services' viagra price cvs (CMS) Patients over Paperwork initiative and the Department of Health and Human Services' (the Department or HHS) Regulatory Sprint to Coordinated Care.

In the proposed rule, we proposed exceptions to the physician self-referral law for certain value-based compensation arrangements between or among physicians, providers, and suppliers. A new exception for certain arrangements under which a physician receives limited remuneration for items or services actually provided by the physician. A new exception for viagra price cvs donations of cybersecurity technology and related services. And amendments to the existing exception for electronic health records (EHR) items and services. The proposed rule also provides critically necessary guidance for physicians and health care providers and suppliers whose financial relationships are governed by the physician viagra price cvs self-referral statute and regulations.

This notice announces an extension of the timeline for publication of the final rule and the continuation of effectiveness of the proposed rule. Section 1871(a)(3)(A) of the Social Security Act (the Act) requires us to establish and publish a regular timeline for the publication of final regulations based on the previous publication of a proposed regulation. In accordance with section 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act, the timeline may vary among different regulations based on differences in the complexity of viagra price cvs the regulation, the number and scope of comments received, and other relevant factors, but may not be longer than 3 years except under exceptional circumstances. In addition, in accordance with section 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act, the Secretary may extend the initial targeted publication date of the final regulation if the Secretary, no later than the regulation's previously established proposed publication date, publishes a notice with the new target date, and such notice includes a brief explanation of the justification for the variation. We announced viagra price cvs in the Spring 2020 Unified Agenda (June 30, 2020, www.reginfo.gov) that we would issue the final rule in August 2020.

However, we are still working through the Start Printed Page 52941complexity of the issues raised by comments received on the proposed rule and therefore we are not able to meet the announced publication target date. This notice extends the timeline for publication of the viagra price cvs final rule until August 31, 2021. Start Signature Dated. August 24, 2020. Wilma M viagra price cvs.

Robinson, Deputy Executive Secretary to the Department, Department of Health and Human Services. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR viagra price cvs Doc. 2020-18867 Filed 8-26-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4120-01-PStart Preamble Notice of amendment. The Secretary issues this amendment pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act to add additional categories of Qualified Persons and viagra price cvs amend the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures.

This amendment to the Declaration published on March 17, 2020 (85 FR 15198) is effective as of August 24, 2020. Start Further Info Robert P viagra price cvs. Kadlec, MD, MTM&H, MS, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20201. Telephone. 202-205-2882.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREP Act) authorizes the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) to issue a Declaration to provide liability immunity to certain individuals and entities (Covered Persons) against any claim of loss caused by, arising out of, relating to, or resulting from the manufacture, distribution, administration, or use of medical countermeasures (Covered Countermeasures), except for claims involving “willful misconduct” as defined in the PREP Act. Under the PREP Act, a Declaration may be amended as circumstances warrant. The PREP Act was enacted on December 30, 2005, as Public Law 109-148, Division C, § 2. It amended the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, adding section 319F-3, which addresses liability immunity, and section 319F-4, which creates a compensation program. These sections are codified at 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d and 42 U.S.C. 247d-6e, respectively. Section 319F-3 of the PHS Act has been amended by the viagra and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act (PAHPRA), Public Law 113-5, enacted on March 13, 2013 and the erectile dysfunction Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, Public Law 116-136, enacted on March 27, Start Printed Page 521372020, to expand Covered Countermeasures under the PREP Act. On January 31, 2020, the Secretary declared a public health emergency pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, 42 U.S.C. 247d, effective January 27, 2020, for the entire United States to aid in the response of the nation's health care community to the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak.

Pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, the Secretary renewed that declaration on April 26, 2020, and July 25, 2020. On March 10, 2020, the Secretary issued a Declaration under the PREP Act for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment (85 FR 15198, Mar. 17, 2020) (the Declaration). On April 10, the Secretary amended the Declaration under the PREP Act to extend liability immunity to covered countermeasures authorized under the CARES Act (85 FR 21012, Apr. 15, 2020).

On June 4, the Secretary amended the Declaration to clarify that covered countermeasures under the Declaration include qualified countermeasures that limit the harm erectile dysfunction treatment might otherwise cause. The Secretary now amends section V of the Declaration to identify as qualified persons covered under the PREP Act, and thus authorizes, certain State-licensed pharmacists to order and administer, and pharmacy interns (who are licensed or registered by their State board of pharmacy and acting under the supervision of a State-licensed pharmacist) to administer, any treatment that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule (ACIP-recommended treatments).[] The Secretary also amends section VIII of the Declaration to clarify that the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures includes not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction or a viagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a viagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases. Description of This Amendment by Section Section V. Covered Persons Under the PREP Act and the Declaration, a “qualified person” is a “covered person.” Subject to certain limitations, a covered person is immune from suit and liability under Federal and State law with respect to all claims for loss caused by, arising out of, relating to, or resulting from the administration or use of a covered countermeasure if a declaration under subsection (b) has been issued with respect to such countermeasure. €œQualified person” includes (A) a licensed health professional or other individual who is authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense such countermeasures under the law of the State in which the countermeasure was prescribed, administered, or dispensed.

Or (B) “a person within a category of persons so identified in a declaration by the Secretary” under subsection (b) of the PREP Act. 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(8).[] By this amendment to the Declaration, the Secretary identifies an additional category of persons who are qualified persons under section 247d-6d(i)(8)(B).[] On May 8, 2020, CDC reported, “The identified declines in routine pediatric treatment ordering and doses administered might indicate that U.S. Children and their communities face increased risks for outbreaks of treatment-preventable diseases,” and suggested that a decrease in rates of routine childhood vaccinations were due to changes in healthcare access, social distancing, and other erectile dysfunction treatment mitigation strategies.[] The report also stated that “[p]arental concerns about potentially exposing their children to erectile dysfunction treatment during well child visits might contribute to the declines observed.” [] On July 10, 2020, CDC reported its findings of a May survey it conducted to assess the capacity of pediatric health care practices to provide immunization services to children during the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. The survey, which was limited to practices participating in the treatments for Children program, found that, as of mid-May, 15 percent of Northeast pediatric practices were closed, 12.5 percent of Midwest practices were closed, 6.2 percent of practices in the South were closed, and 10 percent of practices in the West were closed.

Most practices had reduced office hours for in-person visits. When asked whether their practices would likely be able to accommodate new patients for immunization services through August, 418 practices (21.3 percent) either responded that this was not likely or the practice was permanently closed or not resuming immunization services for all patients, and 380 (19.6 percent) responded that they were unsure. Urban practices and those in the Northeast were less likely to be able to accommodate new patients compared with rural practices and those in the South, Midwest, or West.[] In response to these troubling developments, CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics have stressed, “Well-child visits and vaccinations are essential services and help make sure children are protected.” [] The Secretary re-emphasizes that important recommendation to parents and legal guardians here. If your child is due for a well-child visit, contact your pediatrician's or other primary-care provider's office and ask about ways that the office safely offers well-child visits and vaccinations. Many medical offices are taking extra steps to make sure that well-child visits can occur safely during the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including.

Scheduling sick visits and well-child visits during different times of the Start Printed Page 52138day or days of the week, or at different locations. Asking patients to remain outside until it is time for their appointments to reduce the number of people in waiting rooms. Adhering to recommended social (physical) distancing and other -control practices, such as the use of masks. The decrease in childhood-vaccination rates is a public health threat and a collateral harm caused by erectile dysfunction treatment. Together, the United States must turn to available medical professionals to limit the harm and public health threats that may result from decreased immunization rates.

We must quickly do so to avoid preventable s in children, additional strains on our healthcare system, and any further increase in avoidable adverse health consequences—particularly if such complications coincide with additional resurgence of erectile dysfunction treatment. Together with pediatricians and other healthcare professionals, pharmacists are positioned to expand access to childhood vaccinations. Many States already allow pharmacists to administer treatments to children of any age.[] Other States permit pharmacists to administer treatments to children depending on the age—for example, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, or 12 years of age and older.[] Few States restrict pharmacist-administered vaccinations to only adults.[] Many States also allow properly trained individuals under the supervision of a trained pharmacist to administer those treatments.[] Pharmacists are well positioned to increase access to vaccinations, particularly in certain areas or for certain populations that have too few pediatricians and other primary-care providers, or that are otherwise medically underserved.[] As of 2018, nearly 90 percent of Americans lived within five miles of a community pharmacy.[] Pharmacies often offer extended hours and added convenience. What is more, pharmacists are trusted healthcare professionals with established relationships with their patients. Pharmacists also have strong relationships with local medical providers and hospitals to refer patients as appropriate.

For example, pharmacists already play a significant role in annual influenza vaccination. In the early 2018-19 season, they administered the influenza treatment to nearly a third of all adults who received the treatment.[] Given the potential danger of serious influenza and continuing erectile dysfunction treatment outbreaks this autumn and the impact that such concurrent outbreaks may have on our population, our healthcare system, and our whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, we must quickly expand access to influenza vaccinations. Allowing more qualified pharmacists to administer the influenza treatment to children will make vaccinations more accessible. Therefore, the Secretary amends the Declaration to identify State-licensed pharmacists (and pharmacy interns acting under their supervision if the pharmacy intern is licensed or registered by his or her State board of pharmacy) as qualified persons under section 247d-6d(i)(8)(B) when the pharmacist orders and either the pharmacist or the supervised pharmacy intern administers treatments to individuals ages three through 18 pursuant to the following requirements. The treatment must be FDA-authorized or FDA-approved.

The vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule.[] The licensed pharmacist must complete a practical training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). This training Start Printed Page 52139program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.[] The licensed or registered pharmacy intern must complete a practical training program that is approved by the ACPE. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.[] The licensed pharmacist and licensed or registered pharmacy intern must have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation.[] The licensed pharmacist must complete a minimum of two hours of ACPE-approved, immunization-related continuing pharmacy education during each State licensing period.[] The licensed pharmacist must comply with recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the jurisdiction in which he or she administers treatments, including informing the patient's primary-care provider when available, submitting the required immunization information to the State or local immunization information system (treatment registry), complying with requirements with respect to reporting adverse events, and complying with requirements whereby the person administering a treatment must review the treatment registry or other vaccination records prior to administering a treatment.[] The licensed pharmacist must inform his or her childhood-vaccination patients and the adult caregivers accompanying the children of the importance of a well-child visit with a pediatrician or other licensed primary-care provider and refer patients as appropriate.[] These requirements are consistent with those in many States that permit licensed pharmacists to order and administer treatments to children and permit licensed or registered pharmacy interns acting under their supervision to administer treatments to children.[] Administering vaccinations to children age three and older is less complicated and requires less training and resources than administering vaccinations to younger children. That is because ACIP generally recommends administering intramuscular injections in the deltoid muscle for individuals age three and older.[] For individuals less than three years of age, ACIP generally recommends administering intramuscular injections in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh muscle.[] Administering injections in the thigh muscle often presents additional complexities and requires additional training and resources including additional personnel to safely position the child while another healthcare professional injects the treatment.[] Moreover, as of 2018, 40% of three-year-olds were enrolled in preprimary programs (i.e. Preschool or kindergarten programs).[] Preprimary programs are beginning in the coming weeks or months, so the Secretary has concluded that it is particularly important for individuals ages three through 18 to receive ACIP-recommended treatments according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule.

All States require children to be vaccinated against certain communicable diseases as a condition of school attendance. These laws often apply to both public and private schools with identical immunization and exemption provisions.[] As nurseries, preschools, kindergartens, and schools reopen, increased access to childhood vaccinations is essential to ensuring children can return. Notwithstanding any State or local scope-of-practice legal requirements, (1) qualified licensed pharmacists are identified as qualified persons to order and administer ACIP-recommended treatments and (2) qualified State-licensed or registered pharmacy interns are identified as qualified persons to administer the ACIP-recommended treatments ordered by their supervising qualified licensed pharmacist.[] Both the PREP Act and the June 4, 2020 Second Amendment to the Declaration define “covered countermeasures” to include qualified viagra and epidemic products that “limit the harm such viagra or epidemic might otherwise cause.” [] The troubling decrease in ACIP-recommended childhood vaccinations and the resulting increased risk of associated diseases, adverse health conditions, and other threats are categories of harms otherwise caused by Start Printed Page 52140erectile dysfunction treatment as set forth in Sections VI and VIII of this Declaration.[] Hence, such vaccinations are “covered countermeasures” under the PREP Act and the June 4, 2020 Second Amendment to the Declaration. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed to affect the National treatment Injury Compensation Program, including an injured party's ability to obtain compensation under that program. Covered countermeasures that are subject to the National treatment Injury Compensation Program authorized under 42 U.S.C.

300aa-10 et seq. Are covered under this Declaration for the purposes of liability immunity and injury compensation only to the extent that injury compensation is not provided under that Program. All other terms and conditions of the Declaration apply to such covered countermeasures. Section VIII. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat As discussed, the troubling decrease in ACIP-recommended childhood vaccinations and the resulting increased risk of associated diseases, adverse health conditions, and other threats are categories of harms otherwise caused by erectile dysfunction treatment.

The Secretary therefore amends section VIII, which describes the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures, to clarify that the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures is not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction or a viagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a viagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases. Amendments to Declaration Amended Declaration for Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act Coverage for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment. Sections V and VIII of the March 10, 2020 Declaration under the PREP Act for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment, as amended April 10, 2020 and June 4, 2020, are further amended pursuant to section 319F-3(b)(4) of the PHS Act as described below. All other sections of the Declaration remain in effect as published at 85 FR 15198 (Mar. 17, 2020) and amended at 85 FR 21012 (Apr.

15, 2020) and 85 FR 35100 (June 8, 2020). 1. Covered Persons, section V, delete in full and replace with. V. Covered Persons 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(2), (3), (4), (6), (8)(A) and (B) Covered Persons who are afforded liability immunity under this Declaration are “manufacturers,” “distributors,” “program planners,” “qualified persons,” and their officials, agents, and employees, as those terms are defined in the PREP Act, and the United States. In addition, I have determined that the following additional persons are qualified persons. (a) Any person authorized in accordance with the public health and medical emergency response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as described in Section VII below, to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures, and their officials, agents, employees, contractors and volunteers, following a Declaration of an emergency. (b) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense the Covered Countermeasures or who is otherwise authorized to perform an activity under an Emergency Use Authorization in accordance with Section 564 of the FD&C Act. (c) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense Covered Countermeasures in accordance with Section 564A of the FD&C Act.

And (d) a State-licensed pharmacist who orders and administers, and pharmacy interns who administer (if the pharmacy intern acts under the supervision of such pharmacist and the pharmacy intern is licensed or registered by his or her State board of pharmacy), treatments that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule. Such State-licensed pharmacists and the State-licensed or registered interns under their supervision are qualified persons only if the following requirements are met. The treatment must be FDA-authorized or FDA-approved. The vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule. The licensed pharmacist must complete a practical training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE).

This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. The licensed or registered pharmacy intern must complete a practical training program that is approved by the ACPE. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. The licensed pharmacist and licensed or registered pharmacy intern must have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The licensed pharmacist must complete a minimum of two hours of ACPE-approved, immunization-related continuing pharmacy education during each State licensing period.

The licensed pharmacist must comply with recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the jurisdiction in which he or she administers treatments, including informing the patient's primary-care provider when available, submitting the required immunization information to the State or local immunization information system (treatment registry), complying with requirements with respect to reporting adverse events, and complying with requirements whereby the person administering a treatment must review the treatment registry or other vaccination records prior to administering a treatment. The licensed pharmacist must inform his or her childhood-vaccination patients and the adult caregiver accompanying the child of the importance of a well-child visit with a pediatrician or other licensed primary-care provider and refer patients as appropriate. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed to affect the National treatment Injury Compensation Program, including an injured party's ability to obtain compensation under that program. Covered countermeasures that are subject to the National treatment Injury Compensation Program authorized under 42 U.S.C. 300aa-10 et seq.

Are covered under this Declaration for the purposes of liability immunity and injury compensation only to the extent that injury compensation is not provided under that Program. All other Start Printed Page 52141terms and conditions of the Declaration apply to such covered countermeasures. 2. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat, section VIII, delete in full and replace with. VIII.

Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(2)(A) The category of disease, health condition, or threat for which I recommend the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures is not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction or a viagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a viagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases. Start Authority 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d. End Authority Start Signature Dated.

August 19, 2020. Alex M. Azar II, Secretary of Health and Human Services. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-18542 Filed 8-20-20.

Female viagra review

Using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore multiperspectivesInterpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was originally developed in 1995 by Johnathan Smith as a method to undertake experiential research in psychology and has gained prominence across health and social sciences as a way to understand and interpret topics that are complex and emotionally laden, such as chronic illness experiences.1 2 IPA aims to uncover what a lived experience means to the individual through a process of in-depth reflective inquiry.3 The IPA draws on phenomenological thinking, with the female viagra review purpose to return ‘to the things themselves’3 (p168). However, IPA also acknowledges that we are each influenced by the worlds in which we live and the experiences female viagra review we encounter. Therefore, IPA is an interpretative process between the researcher and researched, influenced predominantly by Heidegger’s interpretive phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiography. Within IPA, it is typical for researchers to select a small homogenous sample to explore the shared perspectives on a single phenomenon female viagra review of interest4.

Within IPA studies, the focus has been on individual people living within diverse settings and populations such as chronic or long-term illnesses. The focus is on understandings of rich, lived experiences, and, given the small samples, IPA female viagra review studies have typically not focused on those connected to the person living with diversity or disease. Recently, there has been an interest within IPA to suggest the value of capturing more complex data through multiple perspectives using designs and processes to address this shortcoming in IPA.4 This may involve the use of multiple participants and a range of data collection methods such as the use of dyads or focus groups. The aim of this paper is to explore the utility of IPA approaches using multiperspectives through focusing on a female viagra review specific case study to illustrate this approach.Case studyThis case study focuses on an IPA study that focused on the lived experiences of adolescents and young adults (AYA) and their family/significant other living with malignant melanoma (MM).

Families and other people important to the experience can provide a logical and insightful female viagra review perspectives on a shared psychosocial phenomenon. Multiperspective designs are gaining increasing prominence among researchers who recognise that an experience such as living with a long-term disease ‘is not solely located within the accounts of those with the diagnosis’4 (p182). For the purposes of this case study, the family/significant others were seen as integral to the experience for the AYA living with MM and their journey together in supporting one another through this experience.During the 1970s, melanoma female viagra review in AYA was rare, but over the intervening decades, there has been a marked increase in the reported incidence of MM in AYA around the globe.5–7 There is a significant amount of biomedical empirical research evidence on melanoma but a dearth of qualitative research around the lived experience for AYA and their family/significant other living with this disease.A purposive sample of young participants, 16–26 years, were identified by the Clinical Nurse Specialists that ensured the participants were experiencing the same phenomenon.8–10 Although the intention was to carry out individual interviews with all the participants following the typical IPA approach, most of the AYA lived at home and the young participants expressed the desire for a shared interview, which was accommodated by the first author. The four individuals (n=4) and three-dyad interviews (n=6) allowed for the shared experience and the phenomena to be captured and understood through data analysis and interpretation.4 Although the use of individual and joint interviews had implications for data collection and analysis—such as the parent wishing to have their voice heard over their child—the researcher had to ensure that questions were also directed to the young participant in order to capture both voices.

In depth, female viagra review semistructured interviews were undertaken within the AYAs primary treatment centre on the day of the outpatient appointment and they were often accompanied with someone who was significant in their journey. Interviews lasted between 90 and 120 min.This study was novel to the experiences of AYA and family/significant other living with MM, which offers a new perspective on the dynamics that are present within the MM experience. Our findings can be valuable for both an AYA, family/significant other and health female viagra review and social care professionals. Both AYA and the family/significant other seemed to consider the emotional implications of talking about the disease.

Throughout this process, participants seemed to strive for a shared understanding of the MM experience, a story that unified rather female viagra review than divided them.Strengths and challengesA social phenomenological perspective demands an emphasis on understanding the participant’s experience of the world from their situation and then interpreting how that understanding is intersubjectively constructed.4 11 In-depth semistructured interviews, therefore, offered an appropriate and compelling method to generate data that permitted such insights and reflections, allowing participants to reconstruct their understandings of a phenomenon3 through narrative. Qualitative researchers are female viagra review increasingly using ‘oint interviews’ (dyad) to explore the lived experiences in health and capture the multiperspective. However, the decision of whether to interview participants separately or together as a dyad is an important consideration because it influences the nature of the data collected and having two different types of data. Each transcript was analysed separately both for the AYA and then the family/significant other, female viagra review whether as an individual or dyad.

This was important as the researcher (first author) was not sure whether the findings for the AYA would be different from that of the family/significant other. There also needs to be time built into the study for the data analysis and IPA founders suggest following the IPA methodology, researchers should follow the key steps.3 Analysing the data individually allowed the narrative to ‘open up’ and reveal the experiences of the participant’s as various ‘individual parts’ and then as a ‘whole’.2 3 Throughout the data analysis, the six key steps supported the rigour, transparency and coherence of the findings.Findings of the case studyThis study was organised hierarchically into themes and following the iterative process of analysis, the 'Life interrupted' female viagra review meta-narrative was identified from all the participant’s lives. €˜Life interrupted’ speaks to the various ways that participants’ lives were interrupted due to the cancer diagnosis, and the journey this disease took them on as well as the unsettling emotions that were experienced during this journey. This is woven into the whole journey experience female viagra review and figure 1 illustrates the core conceptual thread and the interconnection between AYA and the family/significant other.

The interconnection female viagra review between the four super-ordinate and the 12 subthemes is also shown. The ebb and flow of familial relationships can, in some situations, magnify the impact of the physical disease, with the emotional turmoil often rivalling the physical manifestation of the disease.8 11 Conversely, relationships may help the AYA and the family/significant other cope with the disease in a more positive and supportive way. The importance of these unique and changing relationships in living with MM should not be underestimated, and psychosocial female viagra review research about YPs experiences of cancer would be enhanced through the further use and development of the multiperspective approach underpinned by IPA as used in this study, which is able to capture these dynamic inter-relationships. A visual representation is provided within figure 1 and how the individual voices were captured through the individual and dyad interview.Visual multi-perspective IPA design.

IPA, interpretative phenomenological analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Visual multi-perspective IPA female viagra review design. IPA, interpretative phenomenological analysis.ConclusionsThis paper presents experiences of life events and processes that are intersubjective and relational. Meaning is ‘in between’ us but is rarely studied that way in phenomenological inquiry.4 The meanings of events and processes are often contested and can female viagra review sometimes be understood in a more complex manner when viewed from the multiple perspectives involved in the system that constitutes them. Multiple perspective designs can be a useful way for IPA researchers to address research questions that engage with these phenomena.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

Using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore multiperspectivesInterpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was originally developed in 1995 by Johnathan Smith as a method to undertake experiential research in psychology and has gained prominence across health and social sciences as a way to understand here and interpret topics that are complex and emotionally laden, such as chronic illness experiences.1 2 IPA aims to uncover what a lived experience means to the individual through a process of in-depth reflective inquiry.3 The IPA draws on viagra price cvs phenomenological thinking, with the purpose to return ‘to the things themselves’3 (p168). However, IPA also acknowledges that we are each influenced by the worlds in which we live viagra price cvs and the experiences we encounter. Therefore, IPA is an interpretative process between the researcher and researched, influenced predominantly by Heidegger’s interpretive phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiography. Within IPA, it is typical for researchers to viagra price cvs select a small homogenous sample to explore the shared perspectives on a single phenomenon of interest4. Within IPA studies, the focus has been on individual people living within diverse settings and populations such as chronic or long-term illnesses.

The focus is on understandings of rich, lived experiences, and, given the small samples, IPA studies have typically not focused on those viagra price cvs connected to the person living with diversity or disease. Recently, there has been an interest within IPA to suggest the value of capturing more complex data through multiple perspectives using designs and processes to address this shortcoming in IPA.4 This may involve the use of multiple participants and a range of data collection methods such as the use of dyads or focus groups. The aim of this paper is to explore the utility of IPA approaches using multiperspectives through focusing on a specific case study to illustrate this approach.Case studyThis case study focuses on an IPA study that focused on the lived experiences of adolescents and young adults (AYA) and their viagra price cvs family/significant other living with malignant melanoma (MM). Families and viagra price cvs other people important to the experience can provide a logical and insightful perspectives on a shared psychosocial phenomenon. Multiperspective designs are gaining increasing prominence among researchers who recognise that an experience such as living with a long-term disease ‘is not solely located within the accounts of those with the diagnosis’4 (p182).

For the purposes of this case study, the family/significant others were seen as integral to the experience for the AYA living with MM and their journey together in supporting one another through this experience.During the 1970s, melanoma in AYA was rare, but over the intervening decades, there has been a marked increase in the reported incidence of MM in AYA around the globe.5–7 There is a significant amount of biomedical empirical research evidence on melanoma but a viagra price cvs dearth of qualitative research around the lived experience for AYA and their family/significant other living with this disease.A purposive sample of young participants, 16–26 years, were identified by the Clinical Nurse Specialists that ensured the participants were experiencing the same phenomenon.8–10 Although the intention was to carry out individual interviews with all the participants following the typical IPA approach, most of the AYA lived at home and the young participants expressed the desire for a shared interview, which was accommodated by the first author. The four individuals (n=4) and three-dyad interviews (n=6) allowed for the shared experience and the phenomena to be captured and understood through data analysis and interpretation.4 Although the use of individual and joint interviews had implications for data collection and analysis—such as the parent wishing to have their voice heard over their child—the researcher had to ensure that questions were also directed to the young participant in order to capture both voices. In depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken within the AYAs primary treatment centre on the day of the outpatient appointment and they were often accompanied with someone viagra price cvs who was significant in their journey. Interviews lasted between 90 and 120 min.This study was novel to the experiences of AYA and family/significant other living with MM, which offers a new perspective on the dynamics that are present within the MM experience. Our findings can be valuable for both viagra price cvs an AYA, family/significant other and health and social care professionals.

Both AYA and the family/significant other seemed to consider the emotional implications of talking about the disease. Throughout this process, participants seemed to strive for a shared understanding of the MM experience, a story that unified rather than divided them.Strengths and challengesA social phenomenological perspective demands an emphasis on understanding the participant’s experience of the world from their situation and then interpreting how that understanding is intersubjectively constructed.4 11 In-depth semistructured interviews, therefore, offered an appropriate and compelling method to generate data that permitted such insights and reflections, allowing participants viagra price cvs to reconstruct their understandings of a phenomenon3 through narrative. Qualitative researchers are viagra price cvs increasingly using ‘oint interviews’ (dyad) to explore the lived experiences in health and capture the multiperspective. However, the decision of whether to interview participants separately or together as a dyad is an important consideration because it influences the nature of the data collected and having two different types of data. Each transcript viagra price cvs was analysed separately both for the AYA and then the family/significant other, whether as an individual or dyad.

This was important as the researcher (first author) was not sure whether the findings for the AYA would be different from that of the family/significant other. There also needs to be time built into the study for the data analysis and IPA founders suggest following the IPA methodology, researchers should follow the key steps.3 viagra price cvs Analysing the data individually allowed the narrative to ‘open up’ and reveal the experiences of the participant’s as various ‘individual parts’ and then as a ‘whole’.2 3 Throughout the data analysis, the six key steps supported the rigour, transparency and coherence of the findings.Findings of the case studyThis study was organised hierarchically into themes and following the iterative process of analysis, the 'Life interrupted' meta-narrative was identified from all the participant’s lives. €˜Life interrupted’ speaks to the various ways that participants’ lives were interrupted due to the cancer diagnosis, and the journey this disease took them on as well as the unsettling emotions that were experienced during this journey. This is woven into the whole journey experience and figure 1 illustrates the core conceptual thread and the viagra price cvs interconnection between AYA and the family/significant other. The interconnection between the viagra price cvs four super-ordinate and the 12 subthemes is also shown.

The ebb and flow of familial relationships can, in some situations, magnify the impact of the physical disease, with the emotional turmoil often rivalling the physical manifestation of the disease.8 11 Conversely, relationships may help the AYA and the family/significant other cope with the disease in a more positive and supportive way. The importance viagra price cvs of these unique and changing relationships in living with MM should not be underestimated, and psychosocial research about YPs experiences of cancer would be enhanced through the further use and development of the multiperspective approach underpinned by IPA as used in this study, which is able to capture these dynamic inter-relationships. A visual representation is provided within figure 1 and how the individual voices were captured through the individual and dyad interview.Visual multi-perspective IPA design. IPA, interpretative phenomenological analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Visual viagra price cvs multi-perspective IPA design. IPA, interpretative phenomenological analysis.ConclusionsThis paper presents experiences of life events and processes that are intersubjective and relational.

Meaning is ‘in between’ us but is rarely studied that way in viagra price cvs phenomenological inquiry.4 The meanings of events and processes are often contested and can sometimes be understood in a more complex manner when viewed from the multiple perspectives involved in the system that constitutes them. Multiple perspective designs can be a useful way for IPA researchers to address research questions that engage with these phenomena.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

Viagra before and after photos

Viagra before and after photos

I’ve never understood striving for perfection. It’s unattainable. It’s the pinnacle I never want to reach. For if it’s attained, what more is there to achieve?

Viagra before and after photos

Most know that working and working to achieve perfection is a waste of time, but somewhere along the way striving for perfection was drilled into us. It’s at the very core of our existence. When we were young, we worked and worked at achieving something for the accolades we knew would be coming our way. If only we did it right. If only we worked more, we’d hit the mark and hear our praises sung. Our self-worth became dependent on the compliment or two thrown our way. But in doing so, we hung onto the words of others and worked our hands raw, because as children the mark kept moving higher. You could never, ever truly hit the mark. You just kept working and working toward perfection. As an adult I’m telling you, perfection is unattainable. The mark never stops moving.

Viagra before and after photos

Striving for perfection is an addiction. Most perfection addicts falsely believe that achieving perfection indicates excellence. But perfection and excellence are two different things.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary states perfection as a) freedom from fault or defect, flawlessness, b) the quality or state of being saintly, c) an unsurpassable degree of accuracy or excellence. Excellence on the other hand is a) very good of its kind, b) eminently good, c) first class. Two similar, but totally different degrees in terms.

Who wants to be saintly or flawless anyway? Not I. No siree. I like being a little devilish, a little flawed. Ok, depending on who you ask, quite flawed. Regardless, I don’t demand perfection, but I do demand excellence.

Viagra before and after photos

The driving force of my excellence comes from within. I know I want to be eminently good. First-class. First rate in anything I do. But I could care less what other people demand of or expect from me. I don’t live for them. I live for me. I answer to my own higher conscience, and if it’s good enough for me, then by golly, I’ve hit my mark. If it’s not good enough for them. No worries, they can spend the time to work it and work it to get it perfect. No skin off my nose.

Viagra before and after photos

As a member of Toastmasters International, a public speaking club, in both my leadership and speaking roles, I strive for excellence to the best of my abilities. And therein lies the difference between excellence and perfection. To the best of your ability.

I was terrified when I stood up to give my first speech. Just tell the audience a little bit about myself. If I had strived for perfection that first time up, I never would have gone back to Toastmasters. I would have run out the door with my tail between my legs, or my hand over my mouth, never to look back. In expecting perfection, I never would have become president of the club, nor gone onto win public speaking contests. But because there were goals outlined in the manual, for newbie speakers, I just wanted to hit the mark for those goals. And I did. I had attained excellence for what I was aiming to achieve that night. Looking back now, I’m sure there were countless ums and ahs, long pauses and stuttering in that first speech. But in the end, who cares? I wasn’t laughed off the stage. I hit my mark. I achieved excellence. But not perfection. And that’s ok. If I had walked off that stage as Little Miss Perfect, I would have missed out on so much in learning from others, in pushing my comfort zone, and in becoming a better speaker.

Viagra before and after photos

A fellow Toastmaster gave his third speech this past Tuesday. Was it perfect? Hell no. But was it excellent? You betcha. Even the content of the speech was right on the mark. He said in this day and age, if you ask an audience how many members believe they give 100% at work, guess how many people raise their hands? One hundred percent raise their hands. Know what that means? The average Joe gives 100%. Everybody does. Or so we think. With those odds, in order to be noticed or to move forward, then you better be giving 110%. Do you need to be perfect? Nope. But do you need to demand excellence? Absolutely.

Excellence I can handle. But I don’t ever want to be perfect. No siree, not me. I rather like being Little Miss un-Perfect.